Chang Liu

Publications

2 A Low-Cost Vision-Based Unmanned Aerial System for Extremely Low-Light GPS-Denied Navigation and Thermal Imaging

Authors: Chang Liu, John Nash, Stephen D. Prior

Abstract:

This paper presents the design and implementation details of a complete unmanned aerial system (UAS) based on commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) components, focusing on safety, security, search and rescue scenarios in GPS-denied environments. In particular, The aerial platform is capable of semi-autonomously navigating through extremely low-light, GPS-denied indoor environments based on onboard sensors only, including a downward-facing optical flow camera. Besides, an additional low-cost payload camera system is developed to stream both infra-red video and visible light video to a ground station in real-time, for the purpose of detecting sign of life and hidden humans. The total cost of the complete system is estimated to be $1150, and the effectiveness of the system has been tested and validated in practical scenarios.

Keywords: Unmanned Aerial System, optical flow, commercial-off-the-shelf, extremely low-light, GPS-denied, infrared video

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1 An Improved Transfer Logic of the Two-Path Algorithm for Acoustic Echo Cancellation

Authors: Chang Liu, Zishu He

Abstract:

Adaptive echo cancellers with two-path algorithm are applied to avoid the false adaptation during the double-talk situation. In the two-path algorithm, several transfer logic solutions have been proposed to control the filter update. This paper presents an improved transfer logic solution. It improves the convergence speed of the two-path algorithm, and allows the reduction of the memory elements and computational complexity. Results of simulations show the improved performance of the proposed solution.

Keywords: Acoustic echo cancellation, Echo return lossenhancement (ERLE), Two-path algorithm, Transfer logic

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Abstracts

6 The Impact of Team Heterogeneity and Team Reflexivity on Entrepreneurial Decision -Making - Empirical Study in China

Authors: Chang Liu, Rui Xing, Guohong Wang, Liyan Tang

Abstract:

Entrepreneurial actions are based on entrepreneurial decisions. The quality of decisions influences entrepreneurial activities and subsequent new venture performance. Uncertainty of surroundings put heightened demands on the team as a whole, and each team member. Diverse team composition provides rich information, which a team can draw when making complex decisions. However, team heterogeneity may cause emotional conflicts, which is adverse to team outcomes. Thus, the effects of team heterogeneity on team outcomes are complex. Although team heterogeneity is an essential factor influencing entrepreneurial decision-making, there is a lack of empirical analysis on under what conditions team heterogeneity plays a positive role in promoting decision-making quality. Entrepreneurial teams always struggle with complex tasks. How a team shapes its teamwork is key in resolving constant issues. As a collective regulatory process, team reflexivity is characterized by continuous joint evaluation and discussion of team goals, strategies, and processes, and adapt them to current or anticipated circumstances. It enables diversified information to be shared and overtly discussed. Instead of hostile interpretation of opposite opinions team members take them as useful insights from different perspectives. Team reflexivity leads to better integration of expertise to avoid the interference of negative emotions and conflict. Therefore, we propose that team reflexivity is a conditional factor that influences the impact of team heterogeneity on high-quality entrepreneurial decisions. In this study, we identify team heterogeneity as a crucial determinant of entrepreneurial decision quality. Integrating the literature on decision-making and team heterogeneity, we investigate the relationship between team heterogeneity and entrepreneurial decision-making quality, treating team reflexivity as a moderator. We tested our hypotheses using the hierarchical regression method and the data gathered from 63 teams and 205 individual members from 45 new firms in China's first-tier cities such as Beijing, Shanghai, and Shenzhen. This research found that both teams' education heterogeneity and teams' functional background heterogeneity were significantly positively related to entrepreneurial decision-making quality, and the positive relation was stronger in teams with a high level of team reflexivity. While teams' specialization of education heterogeneity was negatively related to decision-making quality, and the negative relationship was weaker in teams with a high level of team reflexivity. We offer two contributions to decision-making and entrepreneurial team literatures. Firstly, our study enriches the understanding of the role of entrepreneurial team heterogeneity in entrepreneurial decision-making quality. Different from previous entrepreneurial decision-making literatures, which focus more on decision-making modes of entrepreneurs and the top management team, this study is a significant attempt to highlight that entrepreneurial team heterogeneity makes a unique contribution to generating high-quality entrepreneurial decisions. Secondly, this study introduced team reflexivity as the moderating variable, to explore the boundary conditions under which the entrepreneurial team heterogeneity play their roles.

Keywords: decision-making quality, entrepreneurial teams, education heterogeneity, functional background heterogeneity, specialization of education heterogeneity

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5 An Empirical Analysis of the Relation between Entrepreneur's Leadership and Team Creativity: The Role of Psychological Empowerment, Cognitive Diversity, and Environmental Uncertainty

Authors: Chang Liu, Hao Huang, Rui Xing, Xiaowen Zhao

Abstract:

Creativity is regarded as vital for new ventures' development since the whole process of entrepreneurship is rooted in the creation and exploration of new ideas. The entrepreneurial leader is central to the entrepreneurial team, who plays an especially important role in this process. However, few scholars have studied the impact entrepreneurs' leadership styles on the creativity of entrepreneurial teams. In this study, we integrate the historically disjointed literatures of leadership style and team creativity under entrepreneurship circumstance to understand why and when entrepreneurs' different leadership style relates to team creativity. Focus on answering the following questions: Is humility leadership necessarily better than narcissism leadership at increasing the creativity of entrepreneurial teams? Moreover, in which situations humility leadership or narcissism leadership is more conducive to the entrepreneurial team's creativity? Based on the componential theory of creativity and entrepreneurial cognition theory, we explore the relationship between entrepreneurs' leadership style and team creativity, treating team cognitive diversity and environmental uncertainty as moderators and psychological empowerment as mediators. We tested our hypotheses using data gathered from 64 teams and 256 individual members from 53 new firms in China's first-tier cities such as Beijing and Shanghai. We found that there was a significant positive relation between entrepreneurs' humble leadership and psychological empowerment, and the more significant the positive correlation was when the environmental uncertainty was high. In addition, there was a significant negative relation between entrepreneurs' narcissistic leadership and psychological empowerment, and the negative relation was weaker in teams with a high team cognitive diversity value. Furthermore, both entrepreneurs' humble leadership and team psychological empowerment were significantly positively related to team creativity. While entrepreneurs' narcissistic leadership was negatively related to team creativity, and the negative relationship was weaker in teams with a high team cognitive diversity or a high environmental uncertainty value. This study has some implications for both scholars and entrepreneurs. Firstly, our study enriches the understanding of the role of leadership in entrepreneurial team creativity. Different from previous team creativity literatures, focusing on TMT and R&D team, this study is a significant attempt to demonstrate that entrepreneurial leadership style is particularly relevant to the core requirements of team creativity. Secondly, this study introduces two moderating variables, cognitive diversity and environmental uncertainty, to explore the different boundary conditions under which the two leadership styles play their roles, which is helpful for entrepreneurs to understand how to leverage leadership to improve entrepreneurial team creativity, how to recruit cognitively diverse employees to moderate the effects of inappropriate leadership to the team. Finally, our findings showed that entrepreneurs' humble leadership makes a unique contribution to explaining team creativity through team psychological empowerment.

Keywords: environmental uncertainty, entrepreneurs’ leadership style, entrepreneurial team creativity, team psychological empowerment, team cognitive diversity

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4 Variability of the Snowline Altitude at Different Region in the Eastern Tibetan Plateau in Recent 20 Years

Authors: Chang Liu, Zhen Li, Ping Zhang

Abstract:

These Glaciers are thought of as natural water reservoirs and are of vital importance to hydrological models and industrial production, and glacial changes act as significant indicators of climate change. The glacier snowline can be used as an indicator of the equilibrium line, which may be a key parameter to study the effect of climate change on glaciers. Using Google Earth Engine, we select optical satellite imageries and implement the Otsu thresholding method on a near-infrared band to detect snowline altitudes (SLAs) of 26 glaciers in three regions of the eastern Tibetan Plateau. Three different study regions in the eastern Tibetan Plateau have different climate regimes, which are Sepu Kangri (SK, maritime glacier), Bu’Gyai Kangri (BK, continental glacier) and west of Qiajajima (WQ, continental glacier), along a latitudinal transect from south to north. We analyzed the effects of climatic factors on the SLA changes from 1995 to 2016. SLAs are fluctuating upward, and the rising values are 100 m, 60 m, and 34 m from south to north during the 22 years. We also observed that the climatic factor that affects the variability of SLA gradually changes from precipitation to temperature from south to north. The northern continental glaciers are mainly affected by temperature, and the southern maritime glaciers affected by precipitation. Owing to the influence of primary climatic factors, continental glaciers are found to have higher SLAs on the south slope, while maritime glaciers have higher SLAs on the north slope.

Keywords: Climate Change, Tibetan Plateau, Glacier, snowline altitude

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3 Synergistic Sorption of Cr(VI) and Cu(II) onto Sweet Potato Vine from Binary Mixtures Cr(VI)-Cu(II)

Authors: Chang Liu, Nuria Fiol, Isabel Villaescusa, Jordi Poch

Abstract:

Over the last decades, biosorption has been an alternative to costly wastewaters treatment for metal removal. Most of the literature on metal biosorption was devoted to studying of single metal ions but nowadays studies on multi-components biosorption are booming. Hexavalent chromium is usually found in mixtures with divalent metal ions in industries wastewaters. However, studies on the simultaneous removal of Cr(VI) and divalent metals are hardly found and the cooperative or competitive mechanism governing each metal ions sorption is still unclear. In this work, simultaneous sorption of Cr(VI) and Cu(II) from their binary mixtures by using sweet potato vine (SPV) was investigated. Sweet potato is one of the four major grain crops in China. Each year about 2000 tons of SPV are generated as by-products. SPV could be a low-cost biosorbent for metal ions due to its rich in cellulose and lignin. In this work, the sorption of Cr(VI) and Cu(II) from their binary mixtures solutions was studied by using SPV sorbent. Equilibrium studies were carried out in binary mixtures in which Cr(VI) and Cu(II) concentration was both varied between 0.1 mM and 0.3 mM, Cr(VI) and Cu(II) single solutions were also prepared as comparison. All the experiments were performed at pH 3±0.05 under 30±2°C for 7 days to make sure sorption achieved equilibrium. Results showed that (i) chromium was partially (10.93%-42.04%) eliminated under studied conditions through reduction and sorption of hexavalent and trivalent forms. The presence of Cu(II) exerts a synergistic effect on the overall sorption process in all the cases of the 0.1-0.3 mM binary mixtures concentration range. (ii) Cr(VI) removal by SPV is favoured by the presence of Cu(II) in solution, because more protons needed for Cr(VI) reduction are available due to Cu(II)-proton competition; however sorption of the formed Cr(III) is unfavoured as a result of the competition between Cr(III) and Cu(II) for protons and sorbent active sites. (iii) Copper was partially (9.26%-13.91%) sorbed onto SPV under studied conditions. The presence of Cr(VI) in binary mixtures also exerts a synergistic effect on the Cu(II) removal in all the cases of the 0.1-0.3 mM binary mixtures concentration range. The results of the present work indicate that sweet potato vine can be successfully employed for the simultaneously removal of Cr(VI) and Cu(II) in binary mixtures, taking advantage of the synergistic effect provoked by one of the metal ion to each other, even though the acquisition of higher removal yields has to be further investigated. Acknowledgements—This work has been financially supported by Ministry of Human Resources and Social Security of PRC (Anhui15), Education Department of Anhui Province (KJ2016A270) and Anhui Normal University (2015rcpy33, 2014bsqdjj53).

Keywords: sweet potato vine, chromium reduction, divalent metal, synergistic sorption

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2 An Integrated Tailoring Method for Thermal Cycling Tests of Spacecraft Electronics

Authors: Chang Liu, Jing Wang, Xin-Yan Ji, Yan-Qiang Bi, Zhong-Xu Xu, Xi-Yuan Li

Abstract:

Thermal tests of electronic units are critically important for the reliability validation and performance demonstration of the spacecraft hard-wares. The tailoring equation in MIL-STD-1540 is based on fatigue of solder date. In the present paper, a new test condition tailoring expression is proposed to fit different thermo-mechanical fatigue and different subsystems, by introducing an integrated evaluating method for the fatigue acceleration exponent. The validate test has been accomplished and the data has been analyzed and compared with that from the MIL-STD-1540 tailoring equations. The results are encouraging and reasonable.

Keywords: thermal fatigue, thermal cycling test, tailoring equation, test condition planning

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1 A Low-Cost Vision-Based Unmanned Aerial System for Extremely Low-Light GPS-Denied Navigation and Thermal Imaging

Authors: Chang Liu, John Nash, Stephen D. Prior

Abstract:

This paper presents the design and implementation details of a complete unmanned aerial system (UAS) based on commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) components, focusing on safety, security, search and rescue scenarios in GPS-denied environments. In particular, the aerial platform is capable of semi-autonomously navigating through extremely low-light, GPS-denied indoor environments based on onboard sensors only, including a downward-facing optical flow camera. Besides, an additional low-cost payload camera system is developed to stream both infrared video and visible light video to a ground station in real-time, for the purpose of detecting sign of life and hidden humans. The total cost of the complete system is estimated to be $1150, and the effectiveness of the system has been tested and validated in practical scenarios.

Keywords: Unmanned Aerial System, optical flow, commercial-off-the-shelf, extremely low-light, GPS-denied, infrared video

Procedia PDF Downloads 199