Liang Zhang


1 Intrinsic Kinetics of Methanol Dehydration over Al2O3 Catalyst

Authors: Liang Zhang, Hai-Tao Zhang, W ei-Yong Ying, Ding-Ye Fang


Dehydration of methanol to dimethyl ether (DME) over a commercial Al2O3 catalyst was studied in an isothermal integral fixed bed reactor. The experiments were performed on the temperature interval 513-613 K, liquid hourly space velocity (LHSV) of 0.9-2.1h-1, pressures between 0.1 and 1.0 MPa. The effect of different operation conditions on the dehydration of methanol was investigated in a laboratory scale experiment. A new intrinsic kinetics equation based on the mechanism of Langmuir-Hinshelwood dissociation adsorption was developed for the dehydration reaction by fitting the expressions to the experimental data. An activation energy of 67.21 kJ/mol was obtained for the catalyst with the best performance. Statistic test showed that this new intrinsic kinetics equation was acceptable.

Keywords: methanol, Catalyst, dimethyl ether, intrinsic kinetics

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4 Effect on the Integrity of the DN300 Pipe and Valves in the Cooling Water System Imposed by the Pipes and Ventilation Pipes above in an Earthquake Situation

Authors: Liang Zhang, Gang Xu, Yue Wang, Chen Li, Shao Chong Zhou


Presently, more and more nuclear power plants are facing the issue of life extension. When a nuclear power plant applies for an extension of life, its condition needs to meet the current design standards, which is not fine for all old reactors, typically for seismic design. Seismic-grade equipment in nuclear power plants are now generally placed separately from the non-seismic-grade equipment, but it was not strictly required before. Therefore, it is very important to study whether non-seismic-grade equipment will affect the seismic-grade equipment when dropped down in an earthquake situation, which is related to the safety of nuclear power plants and future life extension applications. This research was based on the cooling water system with the seismic and non-seismic grade equipment installed together, as an example to study whether the non-seismic-grade equipment such as DN50 fire pipes and ventilation pipes arranged above will damage the DN300 pipes and valves arranged below when earthquakes occur. In the study, the simulation was carried out by ANSYS / LY-DYNA, and Johnson-Cook was used as the material model and failure model. For the experiments, the relative positions of objects in the room were restored by 1: 1. In the experiment, the pipes and valves were filled with water with a pressure of 0.785 MPa. The pressure-holding performance of the pipe was used as a criterion for damage. In addition to the pressure-holding performance, the opening torque was considered as well for the valves. The research results show that when the 10-meter-long DN50 pipe was dropped from the position of 8 meters height and the 8-meter-long air pipe dropped from a position of 3.6 meters height, they do not affect the integrity of DN300 pipe below. There is no failure phenomenon in the simulation as well. After the experiment, the pressure drop in two hours for the pipe is less than 0.1%. The main body of the valve does not fail either. The opening torque change after the experiment is less than 0.5%, but the handwheel of the valve may break, which affects the opening actions. In summary, impacts of the upper pipes and ventilation pipes dropdown on the integrity of the DN300 pipes and valves below in a cooling water system of a typical second-generation nuclear power plant under an earthquake was studied. As a result, the functionality of the DN300 pipeline and the valves themselves are not significantly affected, but the handwheel of the valve or similar articles can probably be broken and need to take care.

Keywords: Earthquake, Integrity, cooling water system, pipe and valve

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3 Investigation and Research on Construction Technology of Tenon and Mortise in Traditional Chinese Architecture

Authors: Liang Zhang


Chinese traditional architecture has developed a school of its own in the world. It has a different structure and construction technology from western architecture. Tenon and mortise structure and construction technology, as the key to the construction of traditional Chinese architecture, have been inherited for thousands of years by traditional craftsmen in various regions of China. However, the traditional architecture varies greatly in different times and regional cultures in China. It is still a lack of research whether this difference extends to mortise and tenon technology. In this study, we measured the mortise and tenon of traditional buildings in Fujian province, Yunnan province, and Northern China; Interviewed some old craftsmen about their traditional construction methods, And compared the today's traditional mortise and tenon technology with that of Song and Qing Dynasties. The results showed that although Chinese traditional architecture has the same origin, the mortise and tenon construction technology systems have been developed at different times, regions, and cultures. For example, tenon and mortise technology in Yunnan Province needs to ensure the ability of buildings to resist earthquakes, while that in Fujian Province needs to ensure the ability of buildings to withstand typhoons. People in different regions, cultures, and times have a different understanding of architectural aesthetics, and the evolution of tools also has different effects on mortise and tenon technology. This study explains the manifestations and causes of these differences. At the same time, due to the impact of modern architectural technology, mortise, and tenon, traditional technology is also rapidly disappearing. As a sorting and collection of mortise and tenon techniques of traditional Chinese architecture, this paper puts forward the corresponding traditional technology protection strategy, to guide the protection and maintenance of local traditional buildings.

Keywords: Construction Technology, traditional Chinese architecture, tenon and mortise, traditional craftsmen

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2 The Modern Significance of Chinese Traditional Gardens for the Development of Modern Eco-Garden Cities

Authors: Liang Zhang


Chinese traditional gardens are the historical and cultural treasures of the whole mankind, among which the excellent parts still have important guiding significance for modern urban design. Based on the background of eco-garden city and reality, through the analysis of various design elements of classical gardens, combined with the needs of today's urban development, starting from the three needs of landscape, energy saving and environmental protection. To explore how Chinese traditional gardens can be revitalized in modern urban planning.

Keywords: Urban development, Chinese traditional gardens, eco-garden city, modern urban planning

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1 Interferometric Demodulation Scheme Using a Mode-Locker Fiber Laser

Authors: Liang Zhang, Yuanfu Lu, Yuming Dong, Guohua Jiao, Wei Chen, Jiancheng Lv


We demonstrated an interferometric demodulation scheme using a mode-locked fiber laser. The mode-locked fiber laser is launched into a two-beam interferometer. When the ratio between the fiber path imbalance of interferometer and the laser cavity length is close to an integer, an interferometric fringe emerges as a result of vernier effect, and then the phase shift of the interferometer can be demodulated. The mode-locked fiber laser provides a large bandwidth and reduces the cost for wavelength division multiplexion (WDM). The proposed interferometric demodulation scheme can be further applied in multi-point sensing system such as fiber optics hydrophone array, seismic wave detection network with high sensitivity and low cost.

Keywords: fiber sensing, interferometric demodulation, mode-locked fiber laser, vernier effect

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