Sudhaveni Naresh

Abstracts

2 India’s Emigration Act: Its Emergence and Changes

Authors: Sudhaveni Naresh

Abstract:

Emigration is not a new phenomenon in India but globalization has reinforced it. India has been a source of emigrants for many countries for a long period. Over 25 million Indian diaspora is spread across the world. Historically, during the British rule indenture labour from India was sent to other colonies. To regulate indentured emigration and to provide a mechanism for emigration, the British India government enacted Emigration Act, 1922. After independence, a majority of unskilled and semi-skilled labour emigrated to Gulf and South-East Asia, whereas white-collar workers preferred North America, Europe and Australia. They are contributing to both the economies in origin and destination. Due to increasing quantum of emigration, the Ministry of Labour enacted Emigration Act, 1983, which deals with the emigration of Indian workers for overseas employment on contractual basis, seeks to safeguard emigrants’ interest and ensures their welfare. The paper explains the reason behind enacting Emigration Act, 1983, and the changes in the form of an Emigration (Amendment) Rules, 2009. This paper examines the current status, effectiveness of the Act and rules.

Keywords: Economic growth, emigrants, Emigration Act 1983, remittance

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1 Indian Emigration to Gulf Countries: Opportunities and Challenges

Authors: Sudhaveni Naresh

Abstract:

International migration is an important subject and gaining more significance andinterest among scholars in recent years. It is defined as crossing of the boundaries of political or administrative units for a certain minimum period for reasons such as education, employment, etc.International migration is not new for India because it has a long history with the Gulf region since ancient period. India is also one of the largest migrant-sending countries after China in the world. Migration towards the Gulf region became more prominent during early 1970s due to oil boom which led to rapid increase in the demand for foreign labour. Of 25 million Indian emigrants are living across the world, about six million Indian emigrants working in the Gulf. Most of these migrants were either unskilled or semi-skilled. Both the pull and push factors behind labour emigrate to Gulf countries. India is world’s leading receiver of remittances and the flow of remittances to India has been increasing steadily since the 1970s. In 2011-12, it was about 4 percent of GDP.Emigrants play a significant role in the economic development and growth of the country via the remittances and knowledge and skill transfer. Scholars see remittances as vital tool in the development for origin country. This paper examines the recent trend and pattern of migration from India to Gulf countries and explores impact of remittances on emigrants’ families at home country. It also highlights opportunities, challenges and the need for strengthening multilateral cooperation to transform migration into an efficient, orderly and humane process.The study propose to undertake a primary survey for this purpose. Both quantitative and qualitative research methods will be used to study the above issues.

Keywords: Development, International Migration, remittances, unskilled labour

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