Major Madhukar


3 Seroprevalence of Herpes Simplex Virus and Rubella Confection in Tropical Regions in Bihar, India

Authors: Krishna Pandey, Maneesh Kumar, Pradeep Das, Roshan Kamal Topno, Manas Ranjan Dikhit, Ganesh Chandra Sahoo, Bhawana, Major Madhukar, Rishikesh Kumar, Devendra Prasad Yadav, Surya Suman


Viral co-infection is now very common across taxa and environments that are involved in congenital infections. Herpes simplex virus (HSV) and Rubella are the two serious viral infections, well categorized in TORCH Syndrome. Here we had endeavoured the seroprevalence of co-infection of HSV and Rubella. Systematic tests have been performed to check the virulence pattern of the co-infection. The study was conducted at Department of Virology, Rajendra Memorial Research Institute of Medical Sciences (ICMR), Patna, Bihar, India during January 2018-July 2018. 299 newly cases were attended with the sign and symptoms of HSV and Rubella. After taking written consent forms from all the subjects, blood samples were collected for serological detection. ELISA was performed to detect the presence of IgM antibody level. 12 patients were found to be IgM positive from each HSV and Rubella infection. The findings of our study showed that 6 patients were positive for both HSV and rubella and hence were co-infected. Such co-infection causes severe health problems as it leads to the mortality rate of the patients during viral infectivity. Epidemiologically, proper screening should be needed to check any chance of occurrence of such co-infection in the affected regions in large scale and take suitable preventive approach to decrease the case totality. Concern has to be given to aid proper diagnosis and treatment in order to decrease the spread of HSV and Rubella co-infection.

Keywords: ELISA, seroprevalence, HSV, co-Infection, Rubella, viral infectivity

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2 Endeavor to Develop Immunological and Hematological Early Diagnostic Marker to Check the Conversion of Asymptomatic to Symptomatic Visceral Leishmaniasis

Authors: Krishna Pandey, Maneesh Kumar, Pradeep Das, Roshan Kamal Topno, Manas Ranjan Dikhit, Vahab Ali, Ganesh Chandra Sahoo, Bhawana, Major Madhukar, Rishikesh Kumar, Vidhya Nand Rabidas, Devendra Prasad Yadav


A diagnostic marker for asymptomatic subject becomes a crucial need for advocating early prophylactic majors to control protozoal infection. The main issue in epidemiological affected regions is the presence of an asymptomatic individual that might potentially convert to a symptomatic visceral leishmaniasis (VL). The epidemiological study has been conducted at highly VL endemic Moriyama village in Patna district, Bihar, India that covers total population of 1540 individuals. Here, 1104(74.02%) people had been randomly screened and only 46 (4.17%) asymptomatic individuals were found sero-positive by the rK39 test. After taking signed informed consent form, blood samples were collected from 46 asymptomatic subjects for further hematological and immunological tests. Total leukocyte count, hemoglobin (gm%), neutrophil, lymphocyte, platelet count and interleukin-10 (IL-10) had been included as diagnostic markers. Interestingly only 5 (10.86%) individuals showed their asymptomatic conversion into symptomatic VL patients during quarterly surveillance. In overall analysis only two markers are suggestive for disease conversion that is hemoglobin (gm%) and IL-10. In all the infected patients, both the mean decrease in hemoglobin and mean increase of IL-10 was 19.23% from its normal value. The results might suggest that hematological and immunological changes would become helpful for early diagnosis of asymptomatic to symptomatic VL conversion.

Keywords: Diagnosis, epidemiological, asymptomatic, interleukin-10, symptomatic visceral leishmaniasis, hemoglobin (gm%)

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1 Evolutionary Prediction of the Viral RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase of Chandipura vesiculovirus and Related Viral Species

Authors: Krishna Pandey, Maneesh Kumar, Pradeep Das, Roshan Kamal Topno, Manas Ranjan Dikhit, Vahab Ali, Ganesh Chandra Sahoo, Bhawana, Major Madhukar, Rishikesh Kumar


Chandipura vesiculovirus is an emerging (-) ssRNA viral entity belonging to the genus Vesiculovirus of the family Rhabdoviridae, associated with fatal encephalitis in tropical regions. The multi-functionally active viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (vRdRp) that has been incorporated with conserved amino acid residues in the pathogens, assigned to synthesize distinct viral polypeptides. The lack of proofreading ability of the vRdRp produces many mutated variants. Here, we have performed the evolutionary analysis of 20 viral protein sequences of vRdRp of different strains of Chandipura vesiculovirus along with other viral species from genus Vesiculovirus inferred in MEGA6.06, employing the Neighbour-Joining method. The p-distance algorithmic method has been used to calculate the optimum tree which showed the sum of branch length of about 1.436. The percentage of replicate trees in which the associated taxa are clustered together in the bootstrap test (1000 replicates), is shown next to the branches. No mutation was observed in the Indian strains of Chandipura vesiculovirus. In vRdRp, 1230(His) and 1231(Arg) are actively participated in catalysis and, are found conserved in different strains of Chandipura vesiculovirus. Both amino acid residues were also conserved in the other viral species from genus Vesiculovirus. Many isolates exhibited maximum number of mutations in catalytic regions in strains of Chandipura vesiculovirus at position 26(Ser→Ala), 47 (Ser→Ala), 90(Ser→Tyr), 172(Gly→Ile, Val), 172(Ser→Tyr), 387(Asn→Ser), 1301(Thr→Ala), 1330(Ala→Glu), 2015(Phe→Ser) and 2065(Thr→Val) which make them variants under different tropical conditions from where they evolved. The result clarifies the actual concept of RNA evolution using vRdRp to develop as an evolutionary marker. Although, a limited number of vRdRp protein sequence similarities for Chandipura vesiculovirus and other species. This might endow with possibilities to identify the virulence level during viral multiplication in a host.

Keywords: Chandipura, (-) ssRNA, viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, neighbour-joining method, p-distance algorithmic, evolutionary marker

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