Christophe Poupin

Abstracts

3 CO2 Methanation over Ru-Ni/CeO2 Catalysts

Authors: Christophe Poupin, Nathalie Elia, Samer Aouad, Jane Estephane, Bilal Nsouli, Edmond Abi Aad

Abstract:

Carbon dioxide is one of the main contributors to greenhouse effect and hence to climate change. As a result, the methanation reaction CO2(g) + 4H2(g) →CH4(g) + 2H2O (ΔH°298 = -165 kJ/mol), also known as Sabatier reaction, has received great interest as a process for the valorization of the greenhouse gas CO2 into methane which is a hydrogen-carrier gas. The methanation of CO2 is an exothermic reaction favored at low temperature and high pressure. However, this reaction requires a high energy input to activate the very stable CO2 molecule, and exhibits serious kinetic limitations. Consequently, the development of active and stable catalysts is essential to overcome these difficulties. Catalytic methanation of CO2 has been studied using catalysts containing Rh, Pd, Ru, Co and Ni on various supports. Among them, the Ni-based catalysts have been extensively investigated under various conditions for their comparable methanation activity with highly improved cost-efficiency. The addition of promoters are common strategies to increase the performance and stability of Ni catalysts. In this work, a small amount of Ru was used as a promoter for Ni catalysts supported on ceria and tested in the CO2 methanation reaction. The nickel loading was 5 wt. % and ruthenium loading is 0.5wt. %. The catalysts were prepared by successive impregnation method using Ni(NO3)2.6H2O and Ru(NO)(NO3)3 as precursors. The calcined support was impregnated with Ni(NO3)2.6H2O, dried, calcined at 600°C for 4h, and afterward, was impregnated with Ru(NO)(NO3)3. The resulting solid was dried and calcined at 600°C for 4 h. Supported monometallic catalysts were prepared likewise. The prepared solids Ru(0.5%)/CeO2, Ni(5%)/CeO2 and Ru(0.5%)-Ni(5%)/CeO2 were then reduced prior to the catalytic test under a flow of 50% H2/Ar (50 ml/min) for 4h at 500°C. Finally, their catalytic performances were evaluated in the CO2 methanation reaction, in the temperature range of 100–350°C by using a gaseous mixture of CO2 (10%) and H2 (40%) in Ar balanced at a total flow rate of 100 mL/min. The effect of pressure on the CO2 methanation was studied by varying the pressure between 1 and 10 bar. The various catalysts showed negligible CO2 conversion at temperatures lower than 250°C. The conversion of CO2 increases with increasing reaction temperature. The addition of Ru as promoter to Ni/CeO2 improved the CO2 methanation. It was shown that the CO2 conversion increases from 15 to 70% at 350°C and 1 bar. The effect of pressure on CO2 conversion was also studied. Increasing the pressure from 1 to 5 bar increases the CO2 conversion from 70% to 87%, while increasing the pressure from 5 to 10 bar increases the CO2 conversion from 87% to 91%. Ru–Ni catalysts showed excellent catalytic performance in the methanation of carbon dioxide with respect to Ni catalysts. Therefore the addition of Ru onto Ni catalysts improved remarkably the catalytic activity of Ni catalysts. It was also found that the pressure plays an important role in improving the CO2 methanation.

Keywords: CO2, Nickel, ruthenium, methanation

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2 Abatement of NO by CO on Pd Catalysts: Influence of the Support in Oxyfuel Combustion Conditions

Authors: Joudia Akil, Stephane Siffert, Laurence Pirault-Roy, Renaud Cousin, Christophe Poupin

Abstract:

The CO2 emitted from anthropic activities is perceived as a constraint in industrial activity due to taxes, stringent environmental regulations, impact on global warming… To limit these CO2 emissions, reuse of CO2 represents a promising alternative, with important applications in chemical industry and for power generation. However, CO2 valorization process requires a gas as pure as possible Oxyfuel-combustion that enables obtaining a CO2 rich stream, with water vapor (10%) is then interesting. Nevertheless to decrease the amount of the by-products found with the CO2 (especially CO and NOx which are harmful to the environment) a catalytic treatment must be applied. Nowadays three-way catalysts are well-developed material for simultaneous conversion of unburned hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide (CO) and nitrogen oxides (NOx). The use of Pd attracted considerable attention on the basis of economic factors (the high cost and scarcity of Pt and Rh). This explains the large number of studies concerning the CO-NO reaction on Pd in the recent years. In the present study, we will compare a series of Pd materials supported on different oxides for CO2 purification from the oxyfuel combustion system, by reducing NO with CO in an oxidizing environment containing CO2 rich stream and presence of 8.2% of water. Al2O3, CeO2, MgO, SiO2 and TiO2 were used as support materials of the catalysts. 1wt% Pd/Support catalysts were obtained by wet impregnation on supports with a precursor of palladium [Pd(acac)2]. The obtained samples were subsequently characterized by H2 chemisorption, BET surface area and TEM. Finally, their catalytic performances were evaluated in CO2 purification which is carried out in a fixed-bed flow reactor containing 150 mg of catalyst at atmospheric pressure. The flow of the reactant gases is composed of: 20% CO2, 10% O2, 0.5% CO, 0.02% NO and 8.2% H2O (He as eluent gas) with a total flow of 200mL.min−1, in the same GHSV. The catalytic performance of the Pd catalysts for CO2 purification revealed that: -The support material has a strong influence on the catalytic activity of 1wt.% Pd supported catalysts. depending of the nature of support, the Pd-based catalysts activity changes. -The highest reduction of NO with CO is obtained in the following ranking: TiO2>CeO2>Al2O3. -The supports SiO2 and MgO should be avoided for this reaction, -Total oxidation of CO occurred over different materials, -CO2 purification can reach 97%, -The presence of H2O has a positive effect on the NO reduction due to the production of the reductant H2 from WGS reaction H2O+CO → H2+CO2

Keywords: Environmental Chemistry, Carbon Dioxide, heterogeneous catalysis, oxyfuel combustion

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1 Effect of Water Addition on Catalytic Activity for CO2 Purification from Oxyfuel Combustion

Authors: Joudia Akil, Stephane Siffert, Laurence Pirault-Roy, Renaud Cousin, Christophe Poupin

Abstract:

Oxyfuel combustion is a promising method that enables to obtain a CO2 rich stream, with water vapor ( ̴10%), unburned components such as CO and NO, which must be cleaned before the use of CO2. Our objective is then the final treatment of CO and NO by catalysis. Three-way catalysts are well-developed material for simultaneous conversion of NO, CO and hydrocarbons. Pt and/or Rh ensure a quasi-complete removal of NOx, CO and HC and there is also a growing interest in partly replacing Pt with less-expensive Pd. The use of alumina and ceria as support ensures, respectively, the stabilization of such species in active state and discharging or storing oxygen to control the oxidation of CO and HC and the reduction of NOx. In this work, we will compare different metals (Pd, Rh and Pt) supported on Al2O3 and CeO2, for CO2 purification from oxyfuel combustion. The catalyst must reduce NO by CO in an oxidizing environment, in the presence of CO2 rich stream and resistant to water. In this study, Al2O3 and CeO2 were used as support materials of the catalysts. 1wt% M/Support where M = Pd, Rh or Pt catalysts were obtained by wet impregnation on supports with a precursor of palladium [Pd(acac)2], rhodium [Rh(NO3)3] and platinum [Pt(NO2)2(NO3)2]. Materials were characterized by BET surface area, H2 chemisorption, and TEM. Catalytic activity was evaluated in CO2 purification which is carried out in a fixed-bed flow reactor containing 150 mg of catalyst at atmospheric pressure. The flow of the reactant gases is composed of: 20% CO2, 10% O2, 0.5% CO, 0.02% NO and 8.2% H2O (He as eluent gas) with a total flow of 200 mL.min−1, with same GHSV (2.24x104 h-1). The catalytic performances of the samples were investigated with and without water. It shows that the total oxidation of CO occurred over the different materials. This study evidenced an important effect of the nature of the metals, supports and the presence or absence of H2O during the reduction of NO by CO in oxyfuel combustions conditions. Rh based catalysts show that the addition of water has a very positive influence especially on the Rh catalyst on CeO2. Pt based catalysts keep a good activity despite the addition of water on the both supports studied. For the NO reduction, addition of water act as a poison with Pd catalysts. The interesting results of Rh based catalysts with water can be explained by a production of hydrogen through the water gas shift reaction. The produced hydrogen acts as a more effective reductant than CO for NO removal. Furthermore, in TWCs, Rh is the main component responsible for NOx reduction due to its especially high activity for NO dissociation. Moreover, cerium oxide is a promotor for WGSR.

Keywords: Environmental Chemistry, Carbon Dioxide, heterogeneous catalysis

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