Chikahiro Imashiro

Abstracts

2 Acoustic Radiation Pressure Detaches Myoblast from Culture Substrate by Assistance of Serum-Free Medium

Authors: Yuta Kurashina, Chikahiro Imashiro, Kenjiro Takemura, Kiyoshi Ohnuma

Abstract:

Research objectives and goals: To realize clinical applications of regenerative medicine, a mass cell culture is highly required. In a conventional cell culture, trypsinization was employed for cell detachment. However, trypsinization causes proliferation decrease due to injury of cell membrane. In order to detach cells using an enzyme-free method, therefore, this study proposes a novel cell detachment method capable of detaching adherent cells using acoustic radiation pressure exposed to the dish by the assistance of serum-free medium with ITS liquid medium supplement. Methods used In order to generate acoustic radiation pressure, a piezoelectric ceramic plate was glued on a glass plate to configure an ultrasonic transducer. The glass plate and a chamber wall compose a chamber in which a culture dish is placed in glycerol. Glycerol transmits acoustic radiation pressure to adhered cells on the culture dish. To excite a resonance vibration of transducer, AC signal with 29-31 kHz (swept) and 150, 300, and 450 V was input to the transducer for 5 min. As a pretreatment to reduce cell adhesivity, serum-free medium with ITS liquid medium supplement was spread to the culture dish before exposed to acoustic radiation pressure. To evaluate the proposed cell detachment method, C2C12 myoblast cells (8.0 × 104 cells) were cultured on a ø35 culture dish for 48 hr, and then the medium was replaced with the serum-free medium with ITS liquid medium supplement for 24 hr. We replaced the medium with phosphate buffered saline and incubated cells for 10 min. After that, cells were exposed to the acoustic radiation pressure for 5 min. We also collected cells by using trypsinization as control. Cells collected by the proposed method and trypsinization were respectively reseeded in ø60 culture dishes and cultured for 24 hr. Then, the number of proliferated cells was counted. Results achieved: By a phase contrast microscope imaging, shrink of lamellipodia was observed before exposed to acoustic radiation pressure, and no cells remained on the culture dish after the exposed of acoustic radiation pressure. This result suggests that serum-free medium with ITS liquid inhibits adhesivity of cells and acoustic radiation pressure detaches cells from the dish. Moreover, the number of proliferated cells 24 hr after collected by the proposed method with 150 and 300 V is the same or more than that by trypsinization, i.e., cells were proliferated 15% higher with the proposed method using acoustic radiation pressure than with the traditional cell collecting method of trypsinization. These results proved that cells were able to be collected by using the appropriate exposure of acoustic radiation pressure. Conclusions: This study proposed a cell detachment method using acoustic radiation pressure by the assistance of serum-free medium. The proposed method provides an enzyme-free cell detachment method so that it may be used in future clinical applications instead of trypsinization.

Keywords: Ultrasonic Transducer, acoustic radiation pressure, cell detachment, enzyme free

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1 Single Cell Sorter Driven by Resonance Vibration of Cell Culture Substrate

Authors: Misa Nakao, Yuta Kurashina, Chikahiro Imashiro, Kenjiro Takemura

Abstract:

The Research Goal: With the growing demand for regenerative medicine, an effective mass cell culture process is required. In a repetitive subculture process for proliferating cells, preparing single cell suspension which does not contain any cell aggregates is highly required because cell aggregates often raise various undesirable phenomena, e.g., apoptosis and decrease of cell proliferation. Since cell aggregates often occur in cell suspension during conventional subculture processes, this study proposes a single cell sorter driven by a resonance vibration of a cell culture substrate. The Method and the Result: The single cell sorter is simply composed of a cell culture substrate and a glass pipe vertically placed against the cell culture substrate with a certain gap corresponding to a cell diameter. The cell culture substrate is made of biocompatible stainless steel with a piezoelectric ceramic disk glued to the bottom side. Applying AC voltage to the piezoelectric ceramic disk, an out-of-plane resonance vibration with a single nodal circle of the cell culture substrate can be excited at 5.5 kHz. By doing so, acoustic radiation force is emitted, and then cell suspension containing only single cells is pumped into the pipe and collected. This single cell sorter is effective to collect single cells selectively in spite of its quite simple structure. We collected C2C12 myoblast cell suspension by the single cell sorter with the vibration amplitude of 12 µmp-p and evaluated the ratio of single cells in number against the entire cells in the suspension. Additionally, we cultured the collected cells for 72 hrs and measured the number of cells after the cultivation in order to evaluate their proliferation. As a control sample, we also collected cell suspension by conventional pipetting, and evaluated the ratio of single cells and the number of cells after the 72-hour cultivation. The ratio of single cells in the cell suspension collected by the single cell sorter was 98.2%. This ratio was 9.6% higher than that collected by conventional pipetting (statistically significant). Moreover, the number of cells cultured for 72 hrs after the collection by the single cell sorter yielded statistically more cells than that collected by pipetting, resulting in a 13.6% increase in proliferated cells. These results suggest that the cell suspension collected by the single cell sorter driven by the resonance vibration hardly contains cell aggregates whose diameter is larger than the gap between the cell culture substrate and the pipe. Consequently, the cell suspension collected by the single cell sorter maintains high cell proliferation. Conclusions: In this study, we developed a single cell sorter capable of sorting and pumping single cells by a resonance vibration of a cell culture substrate. The experimental results show the single cell sorter collects single cell suspension which hardly contains cell aggregates. Furthermore, the collected cells show higher proliferation than that of cells collected by conventional pipetting. This means the resonance vibration of the cell culture substrate can benefit us with the increase in efficiency of mass cell culture process for clinical applications.

Keywords: Regenerative medicine, cell proliferation, acoustic radiation force, resonance vibration, single cell sorter

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