Spandan Sahu

Abstracts

7 Braiding Channel Pattern Due to Variation of Discharge

Authors: Satish Kumar, Spandan Sahu, Sarjati Sahoo, K. K. Khatua

Abstract:

An experimental investigation has been carried out in a tilting flume of 2 m wide, 13 m long, and 0.3 m deep to study the effect of flow on the formation of braided channel pattern. Sediment flow is recirculated through the flume, which passes from the headgate to the sediment/water collecting tank through the tailgate. Further, without altering the geometry of the sand bed channel, the discharge is varied to study the effect of the formation of the braided pattern with time. Then the flow rate is varied to study the effect of flow on the formation of the braided pattern. Sediment transport rate is highly variable and was found to be a nonlinear function of flow rate, aspect ratio, longitudinal slope, and time. Total braided intensity (BIT) for each discharge case is found to be more than the active braided intensity (BIA). Both the parameters first increase and then decrease as the time progresses following a similar pattern for all the observed discharge cases. When the flow is increased, the movement of sediment also increases since the active braided intensity is found to adjust quickly. The measurement of velocity and boundary shear helps to study the erosion and sedimentation processes in the channel and formation of small meandering channels and then the braided channel for different discharge conditions of a sediment river. Due to regime properties of rivers, both total braided Intensity and active braided intensity become stable for a given channel and flow conditions. In the present case, the trend of the ratio of BIA to BIT is found to be asymptotic against the time with a value of 0.4. After the particular time elapses off the flow, new small channels are also found to be formed with changes in the sinuosity of the active channels, thus forming the braided network. This is due to the continuous erosion and sedimentation processes occurring for the flow process for the flow and sediment conditions.

Keywords: Sediment Transport, shear stress, bed load, active braided intensity, total braided intensity

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6 Discharge Estimation in a Two Flow Braided Channel Based on Energy Concept

Authors: Amiya Kumar Pati, Spandan Sahu, Kishanjit Kumar Khatua

Abstract:

River is our main source of water which is a form of open channel flow and the flow in the open channel provides with many complex phenomena of sciences that needs to be tackled such as the critical flow conditions, boundary shear stress, and depth-averaged velocity. The development of society, more or less solely depends upon the flow of rivers. The rivers are major sources of many sediments and specific ingredients which are much essential for human beings. A river flow consisting of small and shallow channels sometimes divide and recombine numerous times because of the slow water flow or the built up sediments. The pattern formed during this process resembles the strands of a braid. Braided streams form where the sediment load is so heavy that some of the sediments are deposited as shifting islands. Braided rivers often exist near the mountainous regions and typically carry coarse-grained and heterogeneous sediments down a fairly steep gradient. In this paper, the apparent shear stress formulae were suitably modified, and the Energy Concept Method (ECM) was applied for the prediction of discharges at the junction of a two-flow braided compound channel. The Energy Concept Method has not been applied for estimating the discharges in the braided channels. The energy loss in the channels is analyzed based on mechanical analysis. The cross-section of channel is divided into two sub-areas, namely the main-channel below the bank-full level and region above the bank-full level for estimating the total discharge. The experimental data are compared with a wide range of theoretical data available in the published literature to verify this model. The accuracy of this approach is also compared with Divided Channel Method (DCM). From error analysis of this method, it is observed that the relative error is less for the data-sets having smooth floodplains when compared to rough floodplains. Comparisons with other models indicate that the present method has reasonable accuracy for engineering purposes.

Keywords: Sediment, open channel flow, critical flow, two-flow braided compound channel, energy concept

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5 Variation of Manning’s Coefficient in a Meandering Channel with Emergent Vegetation Cover

Authors: Spandan Sahu, Amiya Kumar Pati, Kishanjit Kumar Khatua

Abstract:

Vegetation plays a major role in deciding the flow parameters in an open channel. It enhances the aesthetic view of the revetments. The major types of vegetation in river typically comprises of herbs, grasses, weeds, trees, etc. The vegetation in an open channel usually consists of aquatic plants with complete submergence, partial submergence, floating plants. The presence of vegetative plants can have both benefits and problems. The major benefits of aquatic plants are they reduce the soil erosion, which provides the water with a free surface to move on without hindrance. The obvious problems are they retard the flow of water and reduce the hydraulic capacity of the channel. The degree to which the flow parameters are affected depends upon the density of the vegetation, degree of submergence, pattern of vegetation, vegetation species. Vegetation in open channel tends to provide resistance to flow, which in turn provides a background to study the varying trends in flow parameters having vegetative growth in the channel surface. In this paper, an experiment has been conducted on a meandering channel having sinuosity of 1.33 with rigid vegetation cover to investigate the effect on flow parameters, variation of manning’s n with degree of the denseness of vegetation, vegetation pattern and submergence criteria. The measurements have been carried out in four different cross-sections two on trough portion of the meanders, two on the crest portion. In this study, the analytical solution of Shiono and knight (SKM) for lateral distributions of depth-averaged velocity and bed shear stress have been taken into account. Dimensionless eddy viscosity and bed friction have been incorporated to modify the SKM to provide more accurate results. A mathematical model has been formulated to have a comparative analysis with the results obtained from Shiono-Knight Method.

Keywords: Eddy viscosity, bed friction, depth averaged velocity, SKM

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4 Prediction of Boundary Shear Stress with Gradually Tapering Flood Plains

Authors: Spandan Sahu, Amiya Kumar Pati, Kishanjit Kumar Khatua

Abstract:

River is the main source of water. It is a form of natural open channel which gives rise to many complex phenomenon of sciences that needs to be tackled such as the critical flow conditions, boundary shear stress and depth averaged velocity. The development of society more or less solely depends upon the flow of rivers. The rivers are major sources of many sediments and specific ingredients which are much essential for human beings. During floods, part of a river is carried by the simple main channel and rest is carried by flood plains. For such compound asymmetric channels, the flow structure becomes complicated due to momentum exchange between main channel and adjoining flood plains. Distribution of boundary shear in subsections provides us with the concept of momentum transfer between the interface of main channel and the flood plains. Experimentally, to get better data with accurate results are very complex because of the complexity of the problem. Hence, Conveyance Estimation System (CES) software has been used to tackle the complex processes to determine the shear stresses at different sections of an open channel having asymmetric flood plains on both sides of the main channel and the results are compared with the symmetric flood plains for various geometrical shapes and flow conditions. Error analysis is also performed to know the degree of accuracy of the model implemented.

Keywords: velocity distribution, depth average velocity, non prismatic compound channel, relative flow depth

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3 Prediction of Boundary Shear Stress with Flood Plains Enlargements

Authors: Spandan Sahu, Amiya Kumar Pati, Kishanjit Kumar Khatua

Abstract:

The river is our main source of water which is a form of open channel flow and the flow in the open channel provides with many complex phenomena of sciences that need to be tackled such as the critical flow conditions, boundary shear stress, and depth-averaged velocity. The development of society, more or less solely depends upon the flow of rivers. The rivers are major sources of many sediments and specific ingredients which are much essential for human beings. During floods, part of a river is carried by the simple main channel and rest is carried by flood plains. For such compound asymmetric channels, the flow structure becomes complicated due to momentum exchange between the main channel and adjoining flood plains. Distribution of boundary shear in subsections provides us with the concept of momentum transfer between the interface of the main channel and the flood plains. Experimentally, to get better data with accurate results are very complex because of the complexity of the problem. Hence, CES software has been used to tackle the complex processes to determine the shear stresses at different sections of an open channel having asymmetric flood plains on both sides of the main channel, and the results are compared with the symmetric flood plains for various geometrical shapes and flow conditions. Error analysis is also performed to know the degree of accuracy of the model implemented.

Keywords: velocity distribution, depth average velocity, non prismatic compound channel, relative flow depth

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2 Flow Prediction of Boundary Shear Stress with Enlarging Flood Plains

Authors: Spandan Sahu, Amiya Kumar Pati, Kishanjit Kumar Khatua

Abstract:

River is our main source of water which is a form of open channel flow and the flow in open channel provides with many complex phenomenon of sciences that needs to be tackled such as the critical flow conditions, boundary shear stress and depth averaged velocity. During floods, part of a river is carried by the simple main channel and rest is carried by flood plains. For such compound asymmetric channels, the flow structure becomes complicated due to momentum exchange between main channel and adjoining flood plains. Distribution of boundary shear in subsections provides us with the concept of momentum transfer between the interface of main channel and the flood plains. Experimentally, to get better data with accurate results are very complex because of the complexity of the problem. Hence, CES software has been used to tackle the complex processes to determine the shear stresses at different sections of an open channel having asymmetric flood plains on both sides of the main channel and the results is compared with the symmetric flood plains for various geometrical shapes and flow conditions. Error analysis is also performed to know the degree of accuracy of the model implemented.

Keywords: velocity distribution, depth average velocity, non prismatic compound channel, relative flow depth

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1 Depth-Averaged Velocity Distribution in Braided Channel Using Calibrating Coefficients

Authors: Spandan Sahu, Amiya Kumar Pati, Kishanjit Kumar Khatua

Abstract:

Rivers are the backbone of human civilization as well as one of the most important components of nature. In this paper, a method for predicting lateral depth-averaged velocity distribution in a two-flow braided compound channel is proposed. Experiments were conducted to study the boundary shear stress in the tip of the two flow path. The cross-section of the channel is divided into several panels to study the flow phenomenon on both the main channel and the flood plain. It can be inferred from the study that the flow coefficients get affected by boundary shear stress. In this study, the analytical solution of Shiono and knight (SKM) for lateral distributions of depth-averaged velocity and bed shear stress has been taken into account. The SKM is based on hydraulic parameters, which signify the bed friction factor (f), lateral eddy viscosity, and depth-averaged flow. While applying the SKM to different panels, the equations are solved considering the boundary conditions between panels. The boundary shear stress data, which are obtained from experimentation, are compared with CES software, which is based on quasi-one-dimensional Reynold's Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) approach.

Keywords: velocity distribution, boundary shear stress, lateral depth-averaged velocity, two-flow braided compound channel

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