M. R. Djebar

Abstracts

4 Nanoparticles on Biological Biomarquers Models: Paramecium Tetraurelia and Helix aspersa

Authors: M. Djekoun, M. R. Djebar, H. Djebar, L. Khene, M. Boucenna, M. N. Khebbeb

Abstract:

Currently in toxicology, use of alternative models permits to understand the mechanisms of toxicity at different levels of cells. Objectives of our research concern the determination of NPs ZnO, TiO2, AlO2, and FeO2 effect on ciliate protist freshwater Paramecium sp and Helix aspersa. The result obtained show that NPs increased antioxidative enzyme activity like catalase, glutathione –S-transferase and level GSH. Also, cells treated with high concentrations of NPs showed a high level of MDA. In conclusion, observations from growth and enzymatic parameters suggest on one hand that treatment with NPs provokes an oxidative stress and on the other that snale and paramecium are excellent alternatives models for ecotoxicological studies.

Keywords: Toxicity, catalase, MDA, GST, NPS, GSH, snale and paramecium

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3 The Effect of a Weed-Killer Sulfonylurea on Durum Wheat (Triticum Durum Desf)

Authors: M. R. Djebar, L. Meksem Amara, M. Ferfar, N. Meksem

Abstract:

The wheat is the cereal the most consumed in the world. In Algeria, the production of this cereal covers only 20 in 25 % of the needs for the country, the rest being imported. To improve the efficiency and the productivity of the durum wheat, the farmers turn to the use of pesticides: weed-killers, fungicides and insecticides. However this use often entrains losses of products more at least important contaminating the environment and all the food chain. Weed-killers are substances developed to control or destroy plants considered unwanted. That they are natural or produced by the human being (molecule of synthesis), the absorption and the metabolization of weed-killers by plants cause the death of these plants. In this work, we set as goal the evaluation of the effect of a weed-killer sulfonylurea, the CossackOD with various concentrations (0, 2, 4 and 9 µg) on variety of Triticum durum: Cirta. We evaluated the plant growth by measuring the leaves and root length, compared with the witness as well as the content of proline and analyze the level of one of the antioxydative enzymes: catalase, after 14 days of treatment. Sulfonylurea is foliar and root weed-killers inhibiting the acetolactate synthase: a vegetable enzyme essential to the development of the plant. This inhibition causes the ruling of the growth then the death. The obtained results show a diminution of the average length of leaves and roots this can be explained by the fact that the ALS inhibitors are more active in the young and increasing regions of the plant, what inhibits the cellular division and talks a limitation of the foliar and root’s growth. We also recorded a highly significant increase in the proline levels and a stimulation of the catalase activity. As a response to increasing the herbicide concentrations a particular increases in antioxidative mechanisms in wheat cultivar Cirta suggest that the high sensitivity of Cirta to this sulfonylurea herbicide is related to the enhanced production and oxidative damage of reactive oxygen species.

Keywords: Toxicity, triticum durum, sulfonylurea, oxydative stress

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2 Evaluation of Toxicity of Some Fungicides Against the Pathogen Fusarium sp.

Authors: M. Djekoun, H. Berrebah, M. R. Djebar

Abstract:

Fusarium wilt attacks the plants of major economic interest including wheat. This disease causes many problems for farmers and economic loss resulting are often very heavy. Chemical control is currently one of the most effective ways to fight against these diseases. In this study, the efficacy of three fungicides (tebuconazole, thiram and fludioxonil - difenoconazole mixture) was tested, in vitro, on the phytopathogenic Fusarium sp. isolated from seeds of wheat. The active ingredients were tested at different concentrations: 0.06, 1.39, 2.79, 5.58, and 11.16 mg/l for tebuconazole, 0.035, 0.052, 0.105, 0.21, and 0.42 mg/l for thiram and finally, for the mixture fludioxonil- difenoconazole 4 concentrations were tested : 0.05, 0.1, 0.5, and 1 mg/l. Toxicity responses were expressed as the effective concentration, which inhibits mycelial growth by 50%, (EC50). Of the three selected fungicides, thirame proved to be the most effective with EC50 value of the order of 0,15 mg/l followed by the mixture of fludioxonil- difenoconazole with 0,27 mg/l and finally tebuconazole with a value of 3.79 mg/l.

Keywords: thiram, tebuconazole, fludioxonil, difenoconazole, EC50, Fusarium sp

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1 Effects of Some Fungicides on Mycelial Growth of Fusarium spp.

Authors: M. Djekoun, H. Berrebah, M. R. Djebar

Abstract:

Fusarium wilt is destructive disease of cereal crops with small grains. It affects yields but also the quality of the crop and economic losses arising are often very heavy. Chemical control is currently one of the most effective ways to fight against these diseases. In this study, the efficacy of three fungicides (tebuconazole, thiram, and fludioxonil-difenoconazole mixture) was tested. In vitro, on the phytopathogenic Fusarium spp. isolated from seeds of wheat. The active ingredients were tested at different concentrations: 0.06, 1.39, 2.79, 5.58, and 11.16 mg/l for tebuconazole, 0.035, 0.052, 0.105, 0.21, and 0.42 mg/l for thiram and finally, for the mixture fludioxonil-difenoconazole 4 concentrations were tested: 0.05, 0.1, 0.5 and 1 mg/l. Toxicity responses were expressed as effective concentration, which inhibits mycelial growth by 50%, (EC50). Of the three selected fungicides, thirame proved to be the most effective with EC50 value of the order of 0,15 mg/l followed by the mixture of fludioxonil-difenoconazole with 0,27mg/l and finally tebuconazole with a value of 3.79 mg/l.

Keywords: Fusarium spp, thiram, tebuconazole, fludioxonil, difenoconazole, percentage of inhibition, EC50

Procedia PDF Downloads 236