A. Azizi

Abstracts

4 Role of Chloride Ions on The Properties of Electrodeposited ZnO Nanostructures

Authors: L. Mentar, O. Baka, M. R. Khelladi, A. Azizi

Abstract:

Zinc oxide (ZnO), as a transparent semiconductor with a wide band gap of 3.4 eV and a large exciton binding energy of 60 meV at room temperature, is one of the most promising materials for a wide range of modern applications. With the development of film growth technologies and intense recent interest in nanotechnology, several varieties of ZnO nanostructured materials have been synthesized almost exclusively by thermal evaporation methods, particularly chemical vapor deposition (CVD), which generally require a high growth temperature above 550 °C. In contrast, wet chemistry techniques such as hydrothermal synthesis and electro-deposition are promising alternatives to synthesize ZnO nanostructures, especially at a significantly lower temperature (below 200°C). In this study, the electro-deposition method was used to produce zinc oxide (ZnO) nanostructures on fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO)-coated conducting glass substrate from chloride bath. We present the influence of KCl concentrations on the electro-deposition process, morphological, structural and optical properties of ZnO nanostructures. The potentials of electro-deposition of ZnO were determined using the cyclic voltammetry. From the Mott-Schottky measurements, the flat-band potential and the donor density for the ZnO nanostructure are determined. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) images showed different sizes and morphologies of the nanostructures which depends on the concentrations of Cl-. Very netted hexagonal grains are observed for the nanostructures deposited at 0.1M of KCl. X-ray diffraction (XRD) study confirms the Wurtzite phase of the ZnO nanostructures with a preferred oriented along (002) plane normal to the substrate surface. UV-Visible spectra showed a significant optical transmission (~80%), which decreased with low Cl-1 concentrations. The energy band gap values have been estimated to be between 3.52 and 3.80 eV.

Keywords: ZnO, XRD, Mott-Schottky, Cl-, electro-deposition, FESEM

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3 The Effects of Addition of Chloride Ions on the Properties of ZnO Nanostructures Grown by Electrochemical Deposition

Authors: L. Mentar, O. Baka, A. Azizi

Abstract:

Zinc oxide as a wide band semiconductor materials, especially nanostructured materials, have potential applications in large-area such as electronics, sensors, photovoltaic cells, photonics, optical devices and optoelectronics due to their unique electrical and optical properties and surface properties. The feasibility of ZnO for these applications is due to the successful synthesis of diverse ZnO nanostructures, including nanorings, nanobows, nanohelixes, nanosprings, nanobelts, nanotubes, nanopropellers, nanodisks, and nanocombs, by different method. Among various synthesis methods, electrochemical deposition represents a simple and inexpensive solution based method for synthesis of semiconductor nanostructures. In this study, the electrodeposition method was used to produce zinc oxide (ZnO) nanostructures on fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO)-coated conducting glass substrate as TCO from chloride bath. We present a systematic study on the effects of the concentration of chloride anion on the properties of ZnO. The influence of KCl concentrations on the electrodeposition process, morphological, structural and optical properties of ZnO nanostructures was examined. In this research electrochemical deposition of ZnO nanostructures is investigated using conventional electrochemical measurements (cyclic voltammetry and Mott-Schottky), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques. The potentials of electrodeposition of ZnO were determined using the cyclic voltammetry. From the Mott-Schottky measurements, the flat-band potential and the donor density for the ZnO nanostructure are determined. SEM images shows different size and morphology of the nanostructures and depends greatly on the KCl concentrations. The morphology of ZnO nanostructures is determined by the corporated action between [Zn(NO3)2] and [Cl-].Very netted hexagonal grains are observed for the nanostructures deposited at 0.1M of KCl. XRD studies revealed that the all deposited films were polycrystalline in nature with wurtzite phase. The electrodeposited thin films are found to have preferred oriented along (002) plane of the wurtzite structure of ZnO with c-axis normal to the substrate surface for sample at different concentrations of KCl. UV-Visible spectra showed a significant optical transmission (~80%), which decreased with low Cl-1 concentrations. The energy band gap values have been estimated to be between 3.52 and 3.80 eV.

Keywords: ZnO, SEM, XRD, electrodeposition, chloride ions, Mott-Schottky

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2 Study of the Microstructural Evolution and Precipitation Kinetic in AZ91 Alloys

Authors: A. Azizi, M. Toubane, L. Chetibi

Abstract:

Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) is a widely used technique for the study of phase transformations, particularly in the study of precipitation. The kinetic of the precipitation and dissolution is always related to the concept of activation energy Ea. The determination of the activation energy gives important information about the kinetic of the precipitation reaction. In this work, we were interested in the study of the isothermal and non-isothermal treatments on the decomposition of the supersaturated solid solution in the alloy AZ91 (Mg-9 Al-Zn 1-0.2 Mn. mass fraction %), using Differential Calorimetric method. Through this method, the samples were heat treated up to 425° C, using different rates. To calculate the apparent activation energies associated with the formation of precipitated phases, we used different isoconversional methods. This study was supported by other analysis: X-ray diffraction and microhardness measurements.

Keywords: Calorimetric, Activation Energy, AZ91 alloys, microstructural evolution

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1 Electrochemical Growth and Properties of Cu2O Nanostructures

Authors: A. Azizi, S. Laidoudi, G. Schmerber, A. Dinia

Abstract:

Cuprous oxide (Cu2O) is a well-known oxide semiconductor with a band gap of 2.1 eV and a natural p-type conductivity, which is an attractive material for device applications because of its abundant availability, non toxicity, and low production cost. It has a higher absorption coefficient in the visible region and the minority carrier diffusion length is also suitable for use as a solar cell absorber layer and it has been explored in junction with n type ZnO for photovoltaic applications. Cu2O nanostructures have been made by a variety of techniques; the electrodeposition method has emerged as one of the most promising processing routes as it is particularly provides advantages such as a low-cost, low temperature and a high level of purity in the products. In this work, Cu2O nanostructures prepared by electrodeposition from aqueous cupric sulfate solution with citric acid at 65°C onto a fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) coated glass substrates were investigated. The effects of deposition potential on the electrochemical, surface morphology, structural and optical properties of Cu2O thin films were investigated. During cyclic voltammetry experiences, the potential interval where the electrodeposition of Cu2O is carried out was established. The Mott–Schottky (M-S) plot demonstrates that all the films are p-type semiconductors, the flat-band potential and the acceptor density for the Cu2O thin films are determined. AFM images reveal that the applied potential has a very significant influence on the surface morphology and size of the crystallites of thin Cu2O. The XRD measurements indicated that all the obtained films display a Cu2O cubic structure with a strong preferential orientation of the (111) direction. The optical transmission spectra in the UV-Visible domains revealed the highest transmission (75 %), and their calculated gap values increased from 1.93 to 2.24 eV, with increasing potentials.

Keywords: nanostructure, Optical Properties, XRD, electrodeposition, Cu2O, Mott–Schottky plot

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