Ergun Guntekin

Abstracts

4 Elastic Constants of Fir Wood Using Ultrasound and Compression Tests

Authors: Ergun Guntekin

Abstract:

Elastic constants of Fir wood (Abies cilicica) have been investigated by means of ultrasound and compression tests. Three modulus of elasticity in principal directions (EL, ER, ET), six Poisson’s ratios (ʋLR, ʋLT, ʋRT, ʋTR, ʋRL, ʋTL) and three shear modules (GLR, GRT, GLT) were determined. 20 x 20 x 60 mm samples were conditioned at 65 % relative humidity and 20ºC before testing. Three longitudinal and six shear wave velocities propagating along the principal axes of anisotropy, and additionally, three quasi-shear wave velocities at 45° angle with respect to the principal axes of anisotropy were measured. 2.27 MHz longitudinal and 1 MHz shear sensors were used for obtaining sound velocities. Stress-strain curves of the samples in compression tests were obtained using bi-axial extensometer in order to calculate elastic constants. Test results indicated that most of the elastic constants determined in the study are within the acceptable range. Although elastic constants determined from ultrasound are usually higher than those determined from compression tests, the values of EL and GLR determined from compression tests were higher in the study. The results of this study can be used in the numerical modeling of elements or systems under load using Fir wood.

Keywords: Ultrasound, elastic constants, compression tests, fir wood

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3 Elastic Constants of Heat Treated Wood

Authors: Ergun Guntekin

Abstract:

Effects of heat treatment on elastic constants of Black pine (Pinus nigra) wood were investigated. Specimens were exposed to heat under atmospheric pressure at two different temperatures (180 and 210 °C) and three different time levels (2, 5, 8 hours). Three Young’s modulus in three anatomical directions, six Poisson’s ratios and three Shear modulus values associated with the main directions were evaluated by compression tests. Compression strength of the samples in three principal directions was also determined. All of the properties of the specimens tested were altered by heat treatment. The degree of alteration depends on the temperature as well as duration applied. Results indicate that EL and compression strength in L direction were not significantly influenced, compression strength in R direction significantly decreased, ER, ET and compression strength in T direction were increased for shorter periods, then dropped for 8-hour application of 180 ºC. ER was not significantly affected, compression strength in R direction and EL was significantly decreased, ET and compression strength in T direction were increased for shorter periods, then decreased for 8-hour application of 210 ºC. The shear modulus of the samples was decreased with application of treatment combinations. Most of the Poisson’s ratios were not affected by heat treatment.

Keywords: Wood, Heat Treatment, elastic constants, black pine

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2 Effects of Heat Treatment on the Elastic Constants of Cedar Wood

Authors: Murat Aydin, Ergun Guntekin, Tugba Yilmaz Aydin

Abstract:

Effects of heat treatment on the elastic constants of cedar wood (Cedrus libani) were investigated. Specimens were exposed to heat under atmospheric pressure at four different temperatures (120, 150, 180, 210 °C) and three different time levels (2, 5, 8 hours). Three Young’s modulus (EL, ER, ET) and six Poisson ratios (μLR, μLT, μRL, μRT, μTL, μTR) were determined from compression test using bi-axial extensometer at constant moisture content (12 %). Three shear modulus were determined using ultrasound. Six shear wave velocities propagating along the principal axes of anisotropy were measured using EPOCH 650 ultrasonic flaw detector with 1 MHz transverse transducers. The properties of the samples tested were significantly affected by heat treatment by different degree. As a result, softer treatments yielded some amount of increase in Young modulus and shear modulus values, but increase of time and temperature resulted in significant decrease for both values. Poisson ratios seemed insensitive to heat treatment.

Keywords: Ultrasound, Heat Treatment, elastic constants, cedar wood

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1 Determination of Elastic Constants for Scots Pine Grown in Turkey Using Ultrasound

Authors: Ergun Guntekin

Abstract:

This study investigated elastic constants of scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) grown in Turkey by means of ultrasonic waves. Three Young’s modulus, three shear modulus and six Poisson ratios were determined at constant moisture content (12 %). Three longitudinal and six shear wave velocities propagating along the principal axes of anisotropy, and additionally, three quasi-shear wave velocities at 45° with respect to the principal axes of anisotropy were measured using EPOCH 650 ultrasonic flaw detector. The measured average longitudinal wave velocities for the sapwood in L, R, T directions were 4795, 1713 and 1117 m/s, respectively. The measured average shear wave velocities ranged from 682 to 1382 m/s. The measured quasi-shear wave velocities varied between 642 and 1280 m/s. The calculated average modulus of elasticity values for the sapwood in L, R, T directions were 11913, 1565 and 663 N/mm2, respectively. The calculated shear modulus in LR, LT and RT planes were 1031, 541, 415 N/mm2. Comparing with available literature, the predicted elastic constants are acceptable.

Keywords: Ultrasound, prediction, elastic constants, Scots pine

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