S. J. Choi


2 A Method for Solid-Liquid Separation of Cs+ from Radioactive Waste by Using Ionic Liquids and Extractants

Authors: W. Z. Oh, S. J. Choi, J. W. Choi, S. Y. Cho, H. J. Lee


Ionic liquids (ILs), which is alternative to conventional organic solvent, were used for extraction of Cs ions. ILs, as useful environment friendly green solvents, have been recently applied as replacement for traditional volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in liquid/liquid extraction of heavy metal ions as well as organic and inorganic species and pollutants. Thus, Ionic liquids were used for extraction of Cs ions from the liquid radioactive waste. In most cases, Cs ions present in radioactive wastes in very low concentration, approximately less than 1ppm. Therefore, unlike established extraction system the required amount of ILs as extractant is comparatively very small. This extraction method involves cation exchange mechanism in which Cs ion transfers to the organic phase and binds to one crown ether by chelation in exchange of single ILs cation, IL_cation+, transfer to the aqueous phase. In this extraction system showed solid-liquid separation in which the Ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonly)imide (C2mimTf2N) and the crown ether Dicyclohexano-18-crown-6 (DCH18C6) both were used here in very little amount as solvent and as extractant, respectively. 30 mM of CsNO3 was used as simulated waste solution cesium ions. Generally, in liquid-liquid extraction, the molar ratio of CE:Cs+:ILs was 1:5~10:>100, while our applied molar ratio of CE:Cs+:ILs was 1:2:1~10. The quantity of CE and Cs ions were fixed to 0.6 and 1.2 mmol, respectively. The phenomenon of precipitation showed two kinds of separation: solid-liquid separation in the ratio of 1:2:1 and 1:2:2; solid-liquid-liquid separation (3 phase) in the ratio of 1:2:5 and 1:2:10. In the last system, 3 phases were precipitate-ionic liquids-aqueous. The precipitate was verified to consist of Cs+, DCH18C6, Tf2N- based on the cation exchange mechanism. We analyzed precipitate using scanning electron microscopy with X-ray microanalysis (SEM-EDS), an elemental analyser, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The experimental results showed an easy extraction method and confirmed the composition of solid precipitate. We also obtained information that complex formation ratio of Cs+ to DCH18C6 is 0.88:1 regardless of C2mimTf2N quantities.

Keywords: Precipitation, Extraction, ionic liquid, solid-liquid seperation, precipitate

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1 Sorption of Cesium Ions from Aqueous Solutions by Magnetic Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes Functionalized with Zinc Hexacyanoferrate

Authors: J. H. Kim, S. W. Lee, H. H. Lee, D. Y. Kim, W. Z. Oh, S. J. Choi


In recent years, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have been widely employed as a sorbent for the removal of various metal ions from water due to their unique properties such as large surface area, light mass density, high porous and hollow structure, and strong interaction between the pollutant molecules and CNTs. To apply CNTs to the sorption of Cs+ from aqueous solutions, they must first be functionalized to increase their hydrophilicity and therefore, enhance their applicability to the sorption of polar and relatively low-molecular-weight species. The objective of this study is to investigate the preparation of magnetically separable multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs-m) as a sorbents for the removal of Cs+ from aqueous solutions. The MWCNTs-m was prepared using pristine MWCNTs and iron precursor Fe(acac)3. For the selective removal of Cs+ from aqueous solutions, the MWCNTs-m was functionalized with zinc hexacyanoferrate (MWCNTs-m-ZnFC). The physicochemical properties of the synthesized sorbents were characterized with various techniques, including transmission electron microscopy (TEM), specific surface area analysis, Fourier transform-infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, and vibrating-sample magnetometer. The MWCNTs-m-ZnFC was found to be easily separated from aqueous solutions by using magnetic field. The MWCNTs-m-ZnFC exhibited a high capacity for sorbing Cs+ from aqueous solutions because of their strong affinity for Cs+ and specific surface area. The sorption ability of the MWCNTs-m-ZnFC for Cs+ was maintained even in the presence of co-existing ions (Na+). Considering these results, the CNT-m-ZnFCs have great potential for use as an effective sorbent for the selective removal of radioactive Cs+ ions from aqueous solutions.

Keywords: Magnetic Materials, Sorption, multi-walled carbon nanotubes, cesium, zinc hexacyanoferrate

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