Ping Zhou

Abstracts

2 Effect of Strains and Temperature on the Twinning Behavior of High Purity Titanium Compressed by Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar

Authors: Ping Zhou, Dawu Xiao, Chunli Jiang, Ge Sang

Abstract:

Deformation twinning plays an important role in the mechanical properties of Ti which has high specific strength and excellent corrosion resistance ability. To investigate the twinning behavior of Ti under high strain rate compression, the split Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB) was adopted to deform samples to different strains at room temperature. In addition, twinning behaviors under varied temperatures of 373K, 573K and 873K were also investigated. The cylindrical-shaped samples with purity 99.995% were annealed at 1073K for 1 hour in vacuum before compression. All the deformation twins were identified by electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) techniques. The mechanical behavior showed three-stage work hardening in stress-strain curves for samples deformed at temperature 573K and 873K, while only two stages were observed for those deformed at room temperature. For samples compressed at room temperature, the predominant twin types are {10-12}<10-11> (E1), {11-21}<11-26> (E2) and {11-21}<11-23> (C1). The secondary and tertiary twinning was observed inside some E1, E2 and C1 twins. Most of the twin boundaries of E2 acted as the nucleate sites of E1. The densities of twins increase remarkably with increment of strains. For samples compressed at relatively higher temperatures, the migration of twin boundaries of E1, E2 and C1 was observed. All the twin lamellas shorten with temperature, and nearly disappeared at 873K except some remaining E1 twins. Polygonizations of grain boundaries were observed above 573K. The microstructure intended to have a texture with c-axes parallel to compression direction with temperature increment. Factors affecting the dynamic recovery and re-crystallization were discussed.

Keywords: Titanium, Mechanical Behavior, EBSD, deformation twins, high strain rate

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1 Objective-Based System Dynamics Modeling to Forecast the Number of Health Professionals in Pudong New Area of Shanghai

Authors: Ying Qian, Jie Ji, Jing Xu, Yuehong Zhuang, Xiangqing Kang, Ping Zhou, Di Xue

Abstract:

Background: In 2014, there were 28,341 health professionals in Pudong new area of Shanghai and the number per 1000 population was 5.199, 55.55% higher than that in 2006. But it was always less than the average number of health professionals per 1000 population in Shanghai from 2006 to 2014. Therefore, allocation planning for the health professionals in Pudong new area has become a high priority task in order to meet the future demands of health care. In this study, we constructed an objective-based system dynamics model to forecast the number of health professionals in Pudong new area of Shanghai in 2020. Methods: We collected the data from health statistics reports and previous survey of human resources in Pudong new area of Shanghai. Nine experts, who were from health administrative departments, public hospitals and community health service centers, were consulted to estimate the current and future status of nine variables used in the system dynamics model. Based on the objective of the number of health professionals per 1000 population (8.0) in Shanghai for 2020, the system dynamics model for health professionals in Pudong new area of Shanghai was constructed to forecast the number of health professionals needed in Pudong new area in 2020. Results: The system dynamics model for health professionals in Pudong new area of Shanghai was constructed. The model forecasted that there will be 37,330 health professionals (6.433 per 1000 population) in 2020. If the success rate of health professional recruitment changed from 20% to 70%, the number of health professionals per 1000 population would be changed from 5.269 to 6.919. If this rate changed from 20% to 70% and the success rate of building new beds changed from 5% to 30% at the same time, the number of health professionals per 1000 population would be changed from 5.269 to 6.923. Conclusions: The system dynamics model could be used to simulate and forecast the health professionals. But, if there were no significant changes in health policies and management system, the number of health professionals per 1000 population would not reach the objectives in Pudong new area in 2020.

Keywords: System Dynamics, forecast, allocation planning, health professional

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