Onur Turkyilmaz


6 Evaluation of Antibiotic Resistance and Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamases Production Rates of Gram Negative Rods in a University Research and Practice Hospital, 2012-2015

Authors: Recep Kesli, Cengiz Demir, Onur Turkyilmaz, Hayriye Tokay


Objective: Gram-negative rods are a large group of bacteria, and include many families, genera, and species. Most clinical isolates belong to the family Enterobacteriaceae. Resistance due to the production of extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) is a difficulty in the handling of Enterobacteriaceae infections, but other mechanisms of resistance are also emerging, leading to multidrug resistance and threatening to create panresistant species. We aimed in this study to evaluate resistance rates of Gram-negative rods bacteria isolated from clinical specimens in Microbiology Laboratory, Afyon Kocatepe University, ANS Research and Practice Hospital, between October 2012 and September 2015. Methods: The Gram-negative rods strains were identified by conventional methods and VITEK 2 automated identification system (bio-Mérieux, Marcy l’etoile, France). Antibiotic resistance tests were performed by both the Kirby-Bauer disk-diffusion and automated Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (AST, bio-Mérieux, Marcy l’etoile, France) methods. Disk diffusion results were evaluated according to the standards of Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI). Results: Of the totally isolated 1.701 Enterobacteriaceae strains 1434 (84,3%) were Klebsiella pneumoniae, 171 (10%) were Enterobacter spp., 96 (5.6%) were Proteus spp., and 639 Nonfermenting gram negatives, 477 (74.6%) were identified as Pseudomonas aeruginosa, 135 (21.1%) were Acinetobacter baumannii and 27 (4.3%) were Stenotrophomonas maltophilia. The ESBL positivity rate of the totally studied Enterobacteriaceae group were 30.4%. Antibiotic resistance rates for Klebsiella pneumoniae were as follows: amikacin 30.4%, gentamicin 40.1%, ampicillin-sulbactam 64.5%, cefepime 56.7%, cefoxitin 35.3%, ceftazidime 66.8%, ciprofloxacin 65.2%, ertapenem 22.8%, imipenem 20.5%, meropenem 20.5 %, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole 50.1%, and for 114 Enterobacter spp were detected as; amikacin 26.3%, gentamicin 31.5%, cefepime 26.3%, ceftazidime 61.4%, ciprofloxacin 8.7%, ertapenem 8.7%, imipenem 12.2%, meropenem 12.2%, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole 19.2 %. Resistance rates for Proteus spp. were: 24,3% meropenem, 26.2% imipenem, 20.2% amikacin 10.5% cefepim, 33.3% ciprofloxacin and levofloxacine, 31.6% ceftazidime, 20% ceftriaxone, 15.2% gentamicin, 26.6% amoxicillin-clavulanate, and 26.2% trimethoprim-sulfamethoxale. Resistance rates of P. aeruginosa was found as follows: Amikacin 32%, gentamicin 42 %, imipenem 43%, merpenem 43%, ciprofloxacin 50%, levofloxacin 52%, cefepim 38%, ceftazidim 63%, piperacillin/tacobactam 85%, for Acinetobacter baumannii; Amikacin 53.3%, gentamicin 56.6 %, imipenem 83%, merpenem 86%, ciprofloxacin 100%, ceftazidim 100%, piperacillin/tacobactam 85 %, colisitn 0 %, and for S. malthophilia; levofloxacin 66.6 % and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxozole 0 %. Conclusions: This study showed that resistance in Gram-negative rods was a serious clinical problem in our hospital and suggested the need to perform typification of the isolated bacteria with susceptibility testing regularly in the routine laboratory procedures. This application guided to empirical antibiotic treatment choices truly, as a consequence of the reality that each hospital shows different resistance profiles.

Keywords: Antibiotic Resistance, ESBL, VITEK 2, gram negative rods

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5 Comparative Evaluation of Seropositivity and Patterns Distribution Rates of the Anti-Nuclear Antibodies in the Diagnosis of Four Different Autoimmune Collagen Tissue Diseases

Authors: Recep Kesli, Onur Turkyilmaz, Cengiz Demir


Objective: Autoimmune collagen diseases occur with the immune reactions against the body’s own cell or tissues which cause inflammation and damage the tissues and organs. In this study, it was aimed to compare seropositivity rates and patterns of the anti-nuclear antibodies (ANA) in the diagnosis of four different autoimmune collagen tissue diseases (Rheumatoid Arthritis-RA, Systemic Lupus Erythematous-SLE, Scleroderma-SSc and Sjogren Syndrome-SS) with each other. Methods: One hundred eighty-eight patients applied to different clinics in Afyon Kocatepe University ANS Practice and Research Hospital between 11.07.2014 and 14.07.2015 that thought the different collagen disease such as RA, SLE, SSc and SS have participated in the study retrospectively. All the data obtained from the patients participated in the study were evaluated according to the included criteria. The historical archives belonging to the patients have been screened, assessed in terms of ANA positivity. The obtained data was analysed by using the descriptive statistics; chi-squared, Fischer's exact test. The evaluations were performed by SPSS 20.0 version and p < 0.05 level was considered as significant. Results: Distribution rates of the totally one hundred eighty-eight patients according to the diagnosis were found as follows: 82 (43.6%) were RA, 38 (20.2%) were SLE, 22 (11.7%) were SSc, and 46 (24.5%) were SS. Distribution of ANA positivity rates according to the collagen tissue diseases were found as follows; for RA were 54 (65,9 %), for SLE were 36 (94,7 %), for SSc were 18 (81,8 %), and for SS were 43 (93,5 %). Rheumatoid arthritis should be evaluated and classified as a different class among all the other investigated three autoimmune illnesses. ANA positivity rates were found as differently higher (91.5 %) in the SLE, SSc, and SS, from the RA (65.9 %). Differences at ANA positivity rates for RA and the other three diseases were found as statistically significant (p=0.015). Conclusions: Systemic autoimmune illnesses show broad spectrum. ANA positivity was found as an important predictor marker in the diagnosis of the rheumatologic illnesses. ANA positivity should be evaluated as more valuable and sensitive a predictor diagnostic marker in the laboratory findings of the SLE, SSc, and SS according to RA.

Keywords: scleroderma, Rheumatoid Arthritis, antinuclear antibody (ANA), Sjogren syndrome, systemic lupus Erythemotosus

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4 Evaluation of Antibiotic Resistance Profiles of Staphlyococci Isolated from Various Clinical Specimens

Authors: Recep Kesli, Merih Simsek, Cengiz Demir, Onur Turkyilmaz


Objective: Goal of this study was to determine the antibiotic resistance of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and Methicillin resistant staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains isolated at Medical Microbiology Laboratory of ANS Application and Research Hospital, Afyon Kocatepe University, Turkey. Methods: S. aureus strains isolated between October 2012 and September 2016, from various clinical specimens were evaluated retrospectively. S. aureus strains were identified by both the conventional methods and automated identification system -VITEK 2 (bio-Mérieux, Marcy l’etoile, France), and Meticillin resistance was verified using oxacillin disk with disk-diffusion method. Antibiotic resistance testing was performed by Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method according to CLSI criteria, and intermediate susceptible strains were considered as resistant. Results: Seven hundred S.aureus strains which were isolated from various clinical specimens were included in this study. These strains were mostly isolated from blood culture, tissue, wounds and bronchial aspiration. All of 306 (43,7%) were oxacillin resistant. While all the S.aureus strains were found to be susceptible to vancomycin, teicoplanin, daptomycin and linezolid, 38 (9.6 %), 77 (19.5 %), 116 (29.4 %), 152 (38.6 %) and 28 (7.1 %) were found to be resistant aganist to clindamycin, erythromycin, gentamicin, tetracycline and sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim, retrospectively. Conclusions: Comparing to the Methicillin sensitive staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) strains, increased resistance rates of, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, clindamycin, erythromycin, gentamicin, and tetracycline were observed among the MRSA strains. In this study, the most effective antibiotic on the total of strains was found to be trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, the least effective antibiotic on the total of strains was found to be tetracycline.

Keywords: Antibiotic Resistance, Staphylococcus aureus, MRSA, VITEK 2

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3 Typification and Determination of Antibiotic Resistance Rates of Stenotrophomonas Maltophilia Strains Isolated from Intensive Care Unit Patients in a University Practice and Research Hospital

Authors: Recep Kesli, Gulsah Asik, Cengiz Demir, Onur Turkyilmaz


Objective: Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (S. maltophilia) has recently emerged as an important nosocomial microorganism. Treatment of invasive infections caused by this organism is problematic because this microorganism is usually resistant to a wide range of commonly used antimicrobials. We aimed to evaluate clinical isolates of S. maltophilia in respect to sampling sites and antimicrobial resistant. Method: During a two years period (October 2013 and September 2015) eighteen samples collected from the intensive care unit (ICU) patients hospitalized in Afyon Kocatepe University, ANS Practice and Research Hospital. Identification of the bacteria was determined by conventional methods and automated identification system-VITEK 2 (bio-Mérieux, Marcy l’toile, France). Antibacterial resistance tests were performed by Kirby Bauer disc (Oxoid, England) diffusion method following the recommendations of CLSI. Results: Eighteen S. maltophilia strains were identified as the causative agents of different infections. The main type of infection was lower respiratory tract infection (83,4 %); three patients (16,6 %) had bloodstream infection. While, none of the 18 S. maltophilia strains were found to be resistant against to trimethoprim sulfametaxasole (TMP-SXT) and levofloxacine, eight strains 66.6 % were found to be resistant against ceftazidim. Conclusion: The isolation of S.maltophilia starains resistant to TMP-SXT is vital. In order to prevent or minimize infections due to S. maltophilia such precuations should be utilized: Avoidance of inappropriate antibiotic use, prolonged implementation of foreign devices, reinforcement of hand hygiene practices and the application of appropriate infection control practices. Microbiology laboratories also may play important roles in controlling S. maltophilia infections by monitoring the prevalence, continuously, the provision of local antibiotic resistance paterns data and the performance of synergistic studies also may help to guide appropirate antimicrobial therapy choices.

Keywords: Antimicrobial resistance, stenotrophomonas maltophilia, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, Stenotrophomonas spp

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2 Determination of Identification and Antibiotic Resistance Rates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Strains from Various Clinical Specimens in a University Hospital for Two Years, 2013-2015

Authors: Recep Kesli, Gulsah Asik, Cengiz Demir, Onur Turkyilmaz


Objective: Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) is an important nosocomial pathogen which causes serious hospital infections and is resistant to many commonly used antibiotics. P. aeruginosa can develop resistance during therapy and also it is very resistant to disinfectant chemicals. It may be found in respiratory support devices in hospitals. In this study, the antibiotic resistance of P. aeruginosa strains isolated from bronchial aspiration samples was evaluated retrospectively. Methods: Between October 2013 and September 2015, a total of 318 P. aeruginosa were isolated from clinical samples obtained from various intensive care units and inpatient patients hospitalized at Afyon Kocatepe University, ANS Practice and Research Hospital. Isolated bacteria identified by using both the conventional methods and automated identification system-VITEK 2 (bioMerieux, Marcy l’etoile France). Antibacterial resistance tests were performed by using Kirby-Bauer disc (Oxoid, Hampshire, England) diffusion method following the recommendations of CLSI. Results: Antibiotic resistance rates of identified 318 P. aeruginosa strains were found as follows for tested antibiotics; 32 % amikacin, 42% gentamicin, 43% imipenem, 43% meropenem, 50% ciprofloxacin, 57% levofloxacin, 38% cefepime, 63% ceftazidime, and 85% piperacillin/tazobactam. Conclusion: Resistance profiles change according to years and provinces for P. aeruginosa, so these findings should be considered empirical treatment choices. In this study, the highest and lowest resistance rates found against piperacillin/tazobactam % 85, and amikacin %32.

Keywords: Pseudomonas aeruginosa, intensive care unit, antibiotic resistance rates, Pseudomonas spp

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1 Identification and Antibiotic Resistance Rates of Acinetobacter baumannii Strains Isolated from the Respiratory Tract Samples, Obtained from the Different Intensive Care Units

Authors: Recep Kesli, Gulşah Asik, Cengiz Demir, Onur Turkyilmaz


Objective: Acinetobacter baumannii (A. baumannii) can cause health-care associated infections, such as bacteremia, urinary tract and wound infections, endocarditis, meningitis, and pneumonia, particularly in intensive care unit patients. In this study, we aimed to evaluate A. baumannii production in sputum and bronchoalveolar lavage and susceptibilities for antibiotics in a 24 months period. Methods: Between October 2013 and September 2015, Acinetobacter baumannii isolated from respiratory tract speciments were evaluated retrospectively. The strains were isolated from the different intensive care units patients. A. baumannii strains were identified by both the conventional methods and aoutomated identification system -VITEK 2 (bio-Merieux, Marcy l’etoile, France). Antibiotic resistance testing was performed by Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method according to CLSI criteria. Results: All the ninety isolates included in the study were from respiratory tract specimens. While of all the isolated 90 Acinetobacter baumannii strains were found to be resistant (100%), against ceftriaxone, ceftazidime, ciprofloxacin and piperacillin/ tazobactam, resistance rates against other tested antibiotics found as follows; meropenem 77, 86%, imipenem 75, 83%, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-STX) 69, 76,6%, gentamicin 51, 56,6% and amikacin 48, 53,3%. Colistin was found as the most effective antibiotic against Acinetobacter baumannii, and there were not found any resistant (0%) strain against colistin. Conclusion: This study demonstrated that the no resistance was found in Acinetobacter baumannii against to colistin. High rates of resistance to carbapenems (imipenem and meropenem) and other tested antibiotics (ceftiaxone, ceftazidime, ciprofloxacine, piperacilline-tazobactam, TMP-STX gentamicin and amikacin) also have remarkable resistance rates. There was a significant relationship between demographic features of patients such as age, undergoing mechanical ventilation, length of hospital stay with resistance rates. High resistance rates against antibiotics require implementation of the infection control program and rational use of antibiotics. In the present study, while there were not found colistin resistance, panresistance were found against to ceftriaxone, ceftazidime, ciprofloxacin and piperacillin/ tazobactam.

Keywords: Antibiotic Resistance, Acinetobacter baumannii, intensive care unit, multi drug resistance

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