C. Busuioc


5 Electrospun Fibre Networks Loaded with Hydroxyapatite and Barium Titanate as Smart Scaffolds for Tissue Regeneration

Authors: C. Busuioc, A. Evanghelidis, I. Stancu, A. Nicoara, A. Zamfirescu


The field of tissue engineering has expanded its potential due to the use of composite biomaterials belonging to increasingly complex systems, leading to bone substitutes with properties that are continuously improving to meet the patient's specific needs. Furthermore, the development of biomaterials based on ceramic and polymeric phases is an unlimited resource for future scientific research, with the final aim of restoring the original tissue functionality. Thus, in the first stage, composite scaffolds based on polycaprolactone (PCL) or polylactic acid (PLA) and inorganic powders were prepared by employing the electrospinning technique. The targeted powders were: commercial and laboratory synthesized hydroxyapatite (HAp), as well as barium titanate (BT). By controlling the concentration of the powder within the precursor solution, together with the processing parameters, different types of three-dimensional architectures were achieved. In the second stage, both the mineral powders and hybrid composites were investigated in terms of composition, crystalline structure, and microstructure so that to demonstrate their suitability for tissue engineering applications. Regarding the scaffolds, these were proven to be homogeneous on large areas and loaded with mineral particles in different proportions. The biological assays demonstrated that the addition of inorganic powders leads to modified responses in the presence of simulated body fluid (SBF) or cell cultures. Through SBF immersion, the biodegradability coupled with bioactivity were highlighted, with fiber fragmentation and surface degradation, as well as apatite layer formation within the testing period. Moreover, the final composites represent supports accepted by the cells, favoring implant integration. Concluding, the purposed fibrous materials based on bioresorbable polymers and mineral powders, produced by the electrospinning technique, represent candidates with considerable potential in the field of tissue engineering. Future improvements can be attained by optimizing the synthesis process or by simultaneous incorporation of multiple inorganic phases with well-defined biological action in order to fabricate multifunctional composites.

Keywords: Electrospinning, hydroxyapatite, barium titanate, fibre networks, smart scaffolds

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4 Tricalcium Phosphate-Chitosan Composites for Tissue Engineering Applications

Authors: C. Busuioc, G. Voicu, C. D. Ghitulica, A. Cucuruz


In the field of tissue engineering, the compositional and microstructural features of the employed materials play an important role, with implications on the mechanical and biological behaviour of the medical devices. In this context, the development of calcium phosphate-natural biopolymer composites represents a choice of many scientific groups. Thus, tricalcium phosphate powders were synthesized by a wet method, namely co-precipitation, starting from high purity reagents. Moreover, the substitution of calcium with magnesium have been approached, in the 5-10 wt.% range. Afterwards, the phosphate powders were integrated into two types of composites with chitosan, different from morphological point of view. First, 3D porous scaffolds were obtained by a freeze-drying procedure. Second, uniform compact films were achieved by film casting. The influence of chitosan molecular weight (low, medium and high), as well as phosphate powder to polymer ratio (1:1 and 1:2) on the morphological properties, were analysed in detail. In conclusion, the reported biocomposites, prepared by a straightforward route are suitable for bone substitution or repairing applications.

Keywords: chitosan, tricalcium phosphate, bone reconstruction, composite scaffolds

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3 Biocellulose Template for 3D Mineral Scaffolds

Authors: C. Busuioc, S. I. Jinga, G. Voicu


The field of tissue engineering brings new challenges in terms of proposing original solutions for ongoing medical issues, improving the biological performances of existing clinical systems and speeding the healing process for a faster recovery and a more comfortable life as patient. In this context, we propose the obtaining of 3D porous scaffolds of mineral nature, dedicated to bone repairing and regeneration purposes or employed as bioactive filler for bone cements. Thus, bacterial cellulose - calcium phosphates composite materials have been synthesized by successive immersing of the polymeric membranes in the precursor solution containing Ca2+ and [PO4]3- ions. The mineral phase deposited on the surface of biocellulose fibers was varied as amount through the number of immersing cycles. The intermediary composites were subjected to thermal treatments at different temperatures in order to remove the organic part and provide the formation of a self-sustained 3D architecture. The resulting phase composition consists of common phosphates, while the morphology largely depends on the preparation parameters. Thus, the aspect of the 3D mineral scaffolds can be tuned from a loose microstructure composed of large grains connected via monocrystalline nanorods to a trabecular pattern crossed by parallel internal channels, just like the natural bone. The bioactivity and biocompatibility of the obtained materials have been also assessed, with encouraging results in the clinical use direction. In conclusion, the compositional, structural, morphological and biological characterizations sustain the suitability of the reported biostructures for integration in hard tissue engineering applications.

Keywords: bacterial cellulose, bone reconstruction, calcium phosphates, mineral scaffolds

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2 Laser Writing on Vitroceramic Disks for Petabyte Data Storage

Authors: C. Busuioc, E. Pavel, S. I. Jinga


The continuous need of more non-volatile memories with a higher storage capacity, smaller dimensions and weight, as well as lower costs, has led to the exploration of optical lithography on active media, as well as patterned magnetic composites. In this context, optical lithography is a technique that can provide a significant decrease of the information bit size to the nanometric scale. However, there are some restrictions that arise from the need of breaking the optical diffraction limit. Major achievements have been obtained by employing a vitoceramic material as active medium and a laser beam operated at low power for the direct writing procedure. Thus, optical discs with ultra-high density were fabricated by a conventional melt-quenching method starting from analytical purity reagents. They were subsequently used for 3D recording based on their photosensitive features. Naturally, the next step consists in the elucidation of the composition and structure of the active centers, in correlation with the use of silver and rare-earth compounds for the synthesis of the optical supports. This has been accomplished by modern characterization methods, namely transmission electron microscopy coupled with selected area electron diffraction, scanning transmission electron microscopy and electron energy loss spectroscopy. The influence of laser diode parameters, silver concentration and fluorescent compounds formation on the writing process and final material properties was investigated. The results indicate performances in terms of capacity with two order of magnitude higher than other reported information storage systems. Moreover, the fluorescent photosensitive vitroceramics may be integrated in other applications which appeal to nanofabrication as the driving force in electronics and photonics fields.

Keywords: data Storage, Laser Writing, fluorescent compounds, vitroceramics

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1 3D Writing on Photosensitive Glass-Ceramics

Authors: C. Busuioc, S. Jinga, E. Pavel


Optical lithography is a key technique in the development of sub-5 nm patterns for the semiconductor industry. We have already reported that the best results obtained with respect to direct laser writing process on active media, such as glass-ceramics, are achieved only when the energy of the laser radiation is absorbed in discrete quantities. Further, we need to clarify the role of active centers concentration in silver nanocrystals natural generation, as well as in fluorescent rare-earth nanostructures formation. As a consequence, samples with different compositions were prepared. SEM, AFM, TEM and STEM investigations were employed in order to demonstrate that few nm width lines can be written on fluorescent photosensitive glass-ceramics, these being efficient absorbers. Moreover, we believe that the experimental data will lead to the best choice in terms of active centers amount, laser power and glass-ceramic matrix.

Keywords: data Storage, Glass-ceramics, optical disks

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