2 Design of Liquid Crystal Based Interface to Study the Interaction of Gram Negative Bacterial Endotoxin with Milk Protein Lactoferrin
Abstract:Milk protein lactoferrin (Lf) exhibits potent antibacterial activity due to its interaction with Gram-negative bacterial cell membrane component, lipopolysaccharide (LPS). This paper represents fabrication of new Liquid crystals (LCs) based biosensors to explore the interaction between Lf and LPS. LPS self-assembled at aqueous/LCs interface and orients interfacial nematic 4-cyano-4’- pentylbiphenyl (5CB) LCs in a homeotropic fashion (exhibiting dark optical image under polarized optical microscope). Interestingly, on the exposure of Lf on LPS decorated aqueous/LCs interface, an optical image of LCs changed from dark to bright indicating an ordering alteration of interfacial LCs from homeotropic to tilted/planar state. The ordering transition reflects strong binding between Lf and interfacial LPS that, in turn, perturbs the orientation of LCs. With the help of epifluorescence microscopy, we further affirmed the interfacial LPS-Lf binding event by imaging the presence of FITC tagged Lf at the LPS laden aqueous/LCs interface. Finally, we have investigated the conformational behavior of Lf in solution as well as in the presence of LPS using Circular Dichroism (CD) spectroscopy and further reconfirmed with Vibrational Circular Dichroism (VCD) spectroscopy where we found that Lf undergoes alpha-helix to random coil-like structure in the presence of LPS. As a whole the entire results described in this paper establish a robust approach to envisage the interaction between LPS and Lf through the ordering transitions of LCs at aqueous/LCs interface. Procedia PDF Downloads 150
1 Analytic Hierarchy Process and Multi-Criteria Decision-Making Approach for Selecting the Most Effective Soil Erosion Zone in Gomati River Basin
Abstract:In the present study, the objective is to find out the most effective zone causing soil erosion in the Gumati river basin located in the state of Tripura, a north eastern state of India using analytical hierarchy process (AHP) and multi-objective optimization on the basis of ratio analysis (MOORA).The watershed is segmented into 20 zones based on Area. The watershed is considered by pointing the maximum elevation from sea lever from Google earth. The soil erosion is determined using the universal soil loss equation. The different independent variables of soil loss equation bear different weightage for different soil zones. And therefore, to find the weightage factor for all the variables of soil loss equation like rainfall runoff erosivity index, soil erodibility factor etc, analytical hierarchy process (AHP) is used. And thereafter, multi-objective optimization on the basis of ratio analysis (MOORA) approach is used to select the most effective zone causing soil erosion. The MCDM technique concludes that the maximum soil erosion is occurring in the zone 14.
Keywords: soil erosion, Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP), Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE), multi criteria decision making (MCDM), multi-objective optimization on the basis of ratio analysis (MOORA)Procedia PDF Downloads 364