Brijesh K. Tiwari

Abstracts

4 Effect of Ultrasound-Assisted Pretreatment on Saccharification of Spent Coffee Grounds

Authors: Brijesh K. Tiwari, Amit K. Jaiswal, Shady S. Hassan, Gwilym A. Williams

Abstract:

EU is known as the destination with the highest rate of the coffee consumption per capita in the world. Spent coffee grounds (SCG) are the main by-product of coffee brewing. SCG is either disposed as a solid waste or employed as compost, although the polysaccharides from such lignocellulosic biomass might be used as feedstock for fermentation processes. However, SCG as a lignocellulose have a complex structure and pretreatment process is required to facilitate an efficient enzymatic hydrolysis of carbohydrates. However, commonly used pretreatment methods, such as chemical, physico-chemical and biological techniques are still insufficient to meet optimal industrial production requirements in a sustainable way. Ultrasound is a promising candidate as a sustainable green pretreatment solution for lignocellulosic biomass utilization in a large scale biorefinery. Thus, ultrasound pretreatment of SCG without adding harsh chemicals investigated as a green technology to enhance enzyme hydrolysis. In the present work, ultrasound pretreatment experiments were conducted on SCG using different ultrasound frequencies (25, 35, 45, 130, and 950 kHz) for 60 min. Regardless of ultrasound power, low ultrasound frequency is more effective than high ultrasound frequency in pretreatment of biomass. Ultrasound pretreatment of SCG (at ultrasound frequency of 25 kHz for 60 min) followed by enzymatic hydrolysis resulted in total reducing sugars of 56.1 ± 2.8 mg/g of biomass. Fourier transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) was employed to investigate changes in functional groups of biomass after pretreatment, while high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was employed for determination of glucose. Pretreatment of lignocellulose by low frequency ultrasound in water only was found to be an effective green approach for SCG to improve saccharification and glucose yield compared to native biomass. Pretreatment conditions will be optimized, and the enzyme hydrolysate will be used as media component substitute for the production of ethanol.

Keywords: Ultrasound, Pretreatment, lignocellulose, spent coffee grounds

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3 Evaluation of Microwave-Assisted Pretreatment for Spent Coffee Grounds

Authors: Brijesh K. Tiwari, Amit K. Jaiswal, Shady S. Hassan, Gwilym A. Williams

Abstract:

Waste materials from a wide range of agro-industrial processes may be used as substrates for microbial growth, and subsequently the production of a range of high value products and bioenergy. In addition, utilization of these agro-residues in bioprocesses has the dual advantage of providing alternative substrates, as well as solving their disposal problems. Spent coffee grounds (SCG) are a by-product (45%) of coffee processing. SCG is a lignocellulosic material, which is composed mainly of cellulose, hemicelluloses, and lignin. Thus, a pretreatment process is required to facilitate an efficient enzymatic hydrolysis of such carbohydrates. In this context, microwave pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass without the addition of harsh chemicals represents a green technology. Moreover, microwave treatment has a high heating efficiency and is easy to implement. Thus, microwave pretreatment of SCG without adding of harsh chemicals investigated as a green technology to enhance enzyme hydrolysis. In the present work, microwave pretreatment experiments were conducted on SCG at varying power levels (100, 250, 440, 600, and 1000 W) for 60 s. By increasing microwave power to a certain level (which vary by varying biomass), reducing sugar increases, then reducing sugar from biomass start to decrease with microwave power increase beyond this level. Microwave pretreatment of SCG at 60s followed by enzymatic hydrolysis resulted in total reducing sugars of 91.6 ± 7.0 mg/g of biomass (at microwave power of 100 w). Fourier transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) was employed to investigate changes in functional groups of biomass after pretreatment, while high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was employed for determination of glucose. Pretreatment of lignocellulose using microwave was found to be an effective and energy efficient technology to improve saccharification and glucose yield. Energy performance will be evaluated for the microwave pretreatment, and the enzyme hydrolysate will be used as media component substitute for the production of ethanol and other high value products.

Keywords: Microwave, Pretreatment, lignocellulose, spent coffee grounds

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2 Sequential Pulsed Electric Field and Ultrasound Assisted Extraction of Bioactive Enriched Fractions from Button Mushroom Stalks

Authors: Bibha Kumari, Brijesh K. Tiwari, Nigel P. Brunton, Dilip K. Rai

Abstract:

Edible mushrooms possess numerous functional components like homo- and hetero- β-glucans [β(1→3), β(1→4) and β(1→6) glucosidic linkages], chitins, ergosterols, bioactive polysaccharides and peptides imparting health beneficial properties to mushrooms. Some of the proven biological activities of mushroom extracts are antioxidant, antimicrobial, immunomodulatory, cholesterol lowering activity by inhibiting a key cholesterol metabolism enzyme i.e. 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl CoA reductase (HMGCR), angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibition. Application of novel extraction technologies like pulsed electric field (PEF) and high power ultrasound offers clean, green, faster and efficient extraction alternatives with enhanced and good quality extracts. Sequential PEF followed by ultrasound assisted extraction (UAE) were applied to recover bioactive enriched fractions from industrial white button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) stalk waste using environmentally friendly and GRAS solvents i.e. water and water/ethanol combinations. The PEF treatment was carried out at 60% output voltage, 2 Hz frequency for 500 pulses of 20 microseconds pulse width, using KCl salt solution of 0.6 mS/cm conductivity by the placing 35g of chopped fresh mushroom stalks and 25g of salt solution in the 4x4x4cm3 treatment chamber. Sequential UAE was carried out on the PEF pre-treated samples using ultrasonic-water-bath (USB) of three frequencies (25 KHz, 35 KHz and 45 KHz) for various treatment times (15-120 min) at 80°C. Individual treatment using either PEF or UAE were also investigation to compare the effect of each treatment along with the combined effect on the recovery and bioactivity of the crude extracts. The freeze dried mushroom stalk powder was characterised for proximate compositional parameters (dry weight basis) showing 64.11% total carbohydrate, 19.12% total protein, 7.21% total fat, 31.2% total dietary fiber, 7.9% chitin (as glucosamine equivalent) and 1.02% β-glucan content. The total phenolic contents (TPC) were determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu procedure and expressed as gallic-acid-equivalents (GAE). The antioxidant properties were ascertained using DPPH and FRAP assays and expressed as trolox-equivalents (TE). HMGCR activity and molecular mass of β-glucans will be measured using the commercial HMG-CoA Reductase Assay kit (Sigma-Aldrich) and size exclusion chromatography (HPLC-SEC), respectively. Effects of PEF, UAE and their combination on the antioxidant capacity, HMGCR inhibition and β-glucans content will be presented.

Keywords: β-glucan, mushroom stalks, pulsed electric field (PEF), ultrasound assisted extraction (UAE)

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1 Effect of Incorporation of Seaweed Extract in Gelatin Based Film on Physic-Chemical and Bioactive Properties of Film

Authors: Shekhar U. Kadam, S. K. Pankaj, Brijesh K. Tiwari, P. J. Cullen, Colm P. O’Donnell

Abstract:

Brown seaweed L. hyperborea is a rich source of phenolic compounds with antioxidant and antimicrobial properties. The aim of this work was to study the effect of incorporation of L. hyperborea extract to bovine gelatin film on the physicochemical and antioxidant properties of film. Films with fraction of 25% by weight of bovine gelatin sample were cast with addition of glycerol as a plasticizer. The total phenolic content and antioxidant activity of the films showed higher levels with addition of seaweed extract. Also film appearance properties such as film thickness, color and light transparency were evaluated. Film appearance was slightly modified whereas microstructure of films showed rough patches at 50% level of extract in the film. Hydrophilicity and glass transition temperature of the films also increased with increased level of seaweed extract. It was found that seaweed extract can be incorporated within gelatin and casein for development of biofunctional films.

Keywords: Ultrasound, Phenolic Compounds, antioxidant, Laminaria hyperborea, seaweed extract, bovine gelatin film

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