N. Zotos

Abstracts

4 Retrospective Study of Bronchial Secretions Cultures Carried out in the Microbiology Department of General Hospital of Ioannina in 2017

Authors: S. Mantzoukis, M. Gerasimou, P. Christodoulou, N. Varsamis, G. Kolliopoulou, N. Zotos

Abstract:

Purpose: Patients in Intensive Care Units (ICU) are exposed to a different spectrum of microorganisms relative to the hospital. Due to the fact that the majority of these patients are intubated, bronchial secretions should be examined. Material and Method: Bronchial secretions should be taken with care so as not to be mixed with sputum or saliva. The bronchial secretions are placed in a sterile container and then inoculated into blood, Mac Conkey No2, Chocolate, Mueller Hinton, Chapman and Saboureaud agar. After this period, if any number of microbial colonies are detected, gram staining is performed and then the isolated organisms are identified by biochemical techniques in the automated Microscan system (Siemens) followed by a sensitivity test in the same system using the minimum inhibitory concentration MIC technique. The sensitivity test is verified by a Kirby Bauer test. Results: In 2017 the Laboratory of Microbiology received 365 samples of bronchial secretions from the Intensive Care Unit. 237 were found positive. S. epidermidis was identified in 1 specimen, A. baumannii in 60, K. pneumoniae in 42, P. aeruginosa in 50, C. albicans in 40, P. mirabilis in 4, E. coli in 4, S. maltophilia in 6, S. marcescens in 6, S. aureus in 12, S. pneumoniae in 1, S. haemolyticus in 4, P. fluorescens in 1, E. aerogenes in 1, E. cloacae in 5. Conclusions: The majority of ICU patients appear to be a fertile ground for the development of infections. The nature of the findings suggests that a significant part of the bacteria found comes from the unit (nosocomial infection).

Keywords: Cultures, Infections, intensive care units, bronchial secretions

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3 Two Years Retrospective Study of Body Fluid Cultures Obtained from Patients in the Intensive Care Unit of General Hospital of Ioannina

Authors: N. Varsamis, M. Gerasimou, P. Christodoulou, S. Mantzoukis, G. Kolliopoulou, N. Zotos

Abstract:

Purpose: Body fluids (pleural, peritoneal, synovial, pericardial, cerebrospinal) are an important element in the detection of microorganisms. For this reason, it is important to examine them in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) patients. Material and Method: Body fluids are transported through sterile containers and enriched as soon as possible with Tryptic Soy Broth (TSB). After one day of incubation, the broth is poured into selective media: Blood, Mac Conkey No. 2, Chocolate, Mueller Hinton, Chapman and Saboureaud agar. The above selective media are incubated directly for 2 days. After this period, if any number of microbial colonies are detected, gram staining is performed. After that, the isolated organisms are identified by biochemical techniques in the automated Microscan system (Siemens) and followed by a sensitivity test on the same system using the minimum inhibitory concentration MIC technique. The sensitivity test is verified by Kirby Bauer-based plate test. Results: In 2017 the Laboratory of Microbiology received 60 samples of body fluids from the ICU. More specifically the Microbiology Department received 6 peritoneal fluid specimens, 18 pleural fluid specimens and 36 cerebrospinal fluid specimens. 36 positive cultures were tested. S. epidermidis was identified in 18 specimens, S. haemolyticus in 6, and E. faecium in 12. Conclusions: The results show low detection of microorganisms in body fluid cultures.

Keywords: Culture, Microorganisms, intensive care unit, body fluids

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2 Retrospective Study of Positive Blood Cultures Carried out in the Microbiology Department of General Hospital of Ioannina in 2017

Authors: M. Gerasimou, S. Mantzoukis, P. Christodoulou, N. Varsamis, G. Kolliopoulou, N. Zotos

Abstract:

Purpose: Microbial infection of the blood is a serious condition where bacteria invade the bloodstream and cause systemic disease. In such cases, blood cultures are performed. Blood cultures are a key diagnostic test for intensive care unit (ICU) patients. Material and method: The BacT/Alert system, which measures the production of carbon dioxide with metabolic organisms, is used. The positive result in the BacT/Alert system is followed by culture in the following selective media: Blood, Mac Conkey No 2, Chocolate, Mueller Hinton, Chapman and Sabaureaud agar. Gram staining method was used to differentiate bacterial species. The microorganisms were identified by biochemical techniques in the automated Microscan (Siemens) system and followed by a sensitivity test on the same system using the minimum inhibitory concentration MIC technique. The sensitivity test is verified by a Kirby Bauer-based test. Results: In 2017 the Laboratory of Microbiology received 3347 blood cultures. Of these, 170 came from the ICU. 116 found positive. Of these S. epidermidis was identified in 42, A. baumannii in 27, K. pneumoniae in 12 (4 of these KPC ‘Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase’), S. hominis in 8, E. faecium in 7, E. faecalis in 5, P. aeruginosa in 3, C. albicans in 3, S. capitis in 2, K. oxytoca in 2, P. mirabilis in 2, E. coli in 1, S. intermidius in 1 and S. lugdunensis in 1. Conclusions: The study of epidemiological data and microbial resistance phenotypes is essential for the choice of therapeutic regimen for the early treatment and limitation of multivalent strains, while it is a crucial factor to solve diagnostic problems.

Keywords: Infection, Bloodstream, intensive care unit, blood culture

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1 Findings in Vascular Catheter Cultures at the Laboratory of Microbiology of General Hospital during One Year

Authors: P. Christodoulou, M. Gerasimou, S. Mantzoukis, N. Varsamis, G. Kolliopoulou, N. Zotos

Abstract:

Abstract— Purpose: The Intensive Care Unit (ICU) environment is conducive to the growth of microorganisms. A variety of microorganisms gain access to the intravascular area and are transported throughout the circulatory system. Therefore, examination of the catheters used in ICU patients is of paramount importance. Material and Method: The culture medium is a catheter tip, which is enriched with Tryptic soy broth (TSB). After one day of incubation, the broth is passaged in the following selective media: Blood, Mac conkey No. 2, chocolate, Mueller Hinton, Chapman, and Saboureaud agar. The above selective media is incubated for 2 days. After this period, if any number of microbial colonies is detected, gram staining is performed and then the microorganisms are identified by biochemical techniques in the automated Microscan (Siemens) system followed by a sensitivity test in the same system using the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) technique. The sensitivity test is verified by a Kirby Bauer test. Results: In 2017, the Microbiology Laboratory received 84 catheters from the ICU. 42 were found positive. Of these, S. epidermidis was identified at 8, A. baumannii in 10, K. pneumoniae in 6, P. aeruginosa in 6, P. mirabilis in 3, S. simulans in 1, S. haemolyticus in 4, S. aureus in 3 and S. hominis in 1. Conclusions: The results show that the placement and maintenance of the catheters in ICU patients are relatively successful, despite the unfavorable environment of the unit.

Keywords: Culture, Microorganisms, intensive care unit, vascular catheters

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