Atefeh Abdollahi


3 The Effect of Ice in Pain Control before Digital Nerve Block

Authors: Maryam Bahreini, Fatemeh Rasooli, Atefeh Abdollahi, Behzad Simiari, Pooya Payandemehr, Amir Nejati


Introduction: Pain is a complex physiological reaction to tissue injury. In the course of painful procedures such as nerve block, ice has been shown to be a feasible and inexpensive material to control pain. It delays nerve conduction, actives other senses and reduces inflammatory and painful responses. This study assessed the effect of ice in reducing pain caused by needling and infiltration during digital block. Patient satisfaction recorded as a secondary outcome. Methods: This study was designed as a non-blinded randomized clinical trial approved by Tehran University of Medical Sciences Ethical Committee. Informed consent was taken from all the participants who were then randomly divided into two groups. Digital block performed by standard approach in selected patients. Tubes of ice were prepared in gloves and were fragmented at a time of application for circling around the finger. Tubes were applied for 6 minutes before digital nerve block in the site of needling in the case group. Patients in the control group underwent digital nerve block with the conventional method without ice administration. Numeric Rating Scale (NRS) used for grading pain. 0 used for no pain and 10 for the worst pain that patient had experienced until now. Scores were analyzed by Wilcoxon Rank Sum test and compared in case and control groups. Results: 100 patients aged 16-50 years were enrolled. Mean NRS scores with and without ice were 1.5 mm (S.D ± 1.44) and 6.8 mm (S.D ± 1.40) for needling pain and for infiltration pain were 2.7mm ( S.D ±1.65) and 8.5mm ( S.D ± 1.47), respectively (p<0.001). Besides, patients’ satisfactions were significantly higher in the ice group (p<0.001). Conclusion: Application of ice for 6 minutes significantly reduced pain of needling and infiltration in digital nerve block; thus, it seems to be a feasible and inexpensive material which acts effectively to decrease pain and stress before the procedure.

Keywords: Pain, ice, digital block, needle

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2 Evaluation of Triage Performance: Nurse Practice and Problem Classifications

Authors: Maryam Bahreini, Fatemeh Rasooli, Atefeh Abdollahi, Babak Choobi Anzali


Introduction: Triage becomes the main part of organization of care in Emergency department (ED)s. It is used to describe the sorting of patients for treatment priority in ED. The accurate triage of injured patients has reduced fatalities and improved resource usage. Besides, the nurses’ knowledge and skill are important factors in triage decision-making. The ability to define an appropriate triage level and their need for intervention is crucial to guide to a safe and effective emergency care. Methods: This is a prospective cross-sectional study designed for emergency nurses working in four public university hospitals. Five triage workshops have been conducted every three months for emergency nurses based on a standard triage Emergency Severity Index (ESI) IV slide set - approved by Iranian Ministry of Health. Most influential items on triage performance were discussed through brainstorming in workshops which then, were peer reviewed by five emergency physicians and two head registered nurses expert panel. These factors that might distract nurse’ attention from proper decisions included patients’ past medical diseases, the natural tricks of triage and system failure. After permission had been taken, emergency nurses participated in the study and were given the structured questionnaire. Data were analysed by SPSS 21.0. Results: 92 emergency nurses enrolled in the study. 30 % of nurses reported the past history of chronic disease as the most influential confounding factor to ascertain triage level, other important factors were the history of prior admission, past history of myocardial infarction and heart failure to be 20, 17 and 11 %, respectively. Regarding the concept of difficulties in triage practice, 54.3 % reported that the discussion with patients and family members was difficult and 8.7 % declared that it is hard to stay in a single triage room whole day. Among the participants, 45.7 and 26.1 % evaluated the triage workshops as moderately and highly effective, respectively. 56.5 % reported overcrowding as the most important system-based difficulty. Nurses were mainly doubtful to differentiate between the triage levels 2 and 3 according to the ESI VI system. No significant correlation was found between the work record of nurses in triage and the uncertainty in determining the triage level and difficulties. Conclusion: The work record of nurses hardly seemed to be effective on the triage problems and issues. To correct the deficits, training workshops should be carried out, followed by continuous refresher training and supportive supervision.

Keywords: Education, Assessment, nurse, triage

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1 Comparison of the Efficacy of Ketamine-Propofol versus Thiopental Sodium-Fentanyl in Procedural Sedation in the Emergency Department: A Randomized Double-Blind Clinical Trial

Authors: Maryam Bahreini, Mostafa Talebi Garekani, Fatemeh Rasooli, Atefeh Abdollahi


Introduction: Procedural sedation and analgesia have been desirable to handle painful procedures. The trend to find the agent with more efficacy and less complications is still controversial; thus, many sedative regimens have been studied. This study tried to assess the effectiveness and adverse effects of thiopental sodium-fentanyl with the known medication, ketamine-propofol for procedural sedation in the emergency department. Methods: Consenting patients were enrolled in this randomized double-blind trial to receive either 1:1 ketamine-propofol (KP) or thiopental-fentanyl (TF) 1:1 mg: Mg proportion on a weight-based dosing basis to reach the sedation level of American Society of Anesthesiologist class III/IV. The respiratory and hemodynamic complications, nausea and vomiting, recovery agitation, patient recall and satisfaction, provider satisfaction and recovery time were compared. The study was registered in Iranian randomized Control Trial Registry (Code: IRCT2015111325025N1). Results: 96 adult patients were included and randomized, 47 in the KP group and 49 in the TF group. 2.1% in the KP group and 8.1 % in the TF group experienced transient hypoxia leading to performing 4.2 % versus 8.1 % airway maneuvers for 2 groups, respectively; however, no statistically significant difference was observed between 2 combinations, and there was no report of endotracheal placement or further admission. Patient and physician satisfaction were significantly higher in the KP group. There was no difference in respiratory, gastrointestinal, cardiovascular and psychiatric adverse events, recovery time and patient recall of the procedure between groups. The efficacy and complications were not related to the type of procedure or patients’ smoking or addiction trends. Conclusion: Ketamine-propofol and thiopental-fentanyl combinations were effectively comparable although KP resulted in higher patient and provider satisfaction. It is estimated that thiopental fentanyl combination can be as potent and efficacious as ketofol with relatively similar incidence of adverse events in procedural sedation.

Keywords: Safety, Adverse Effects, thiopental, fentanyl, propofol, ketamine, conscious sedation

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