Muhammad Waqar Ashraf

Abstracts

4 Levels of Heavy Metals in Different Tissues of Lethrinus Miniatus Fish from Arabian Gulf

Authors: Muhammad Waqar Ashraf

Abstract:

In the present study, accumulation of eight heavy metals, lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), manganese (Mn), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), iron (Fe), nickel (Ni) and chromium (Cr)was determined in kidney, heart, liver and muscle tissues of Lethrinus Miniatus fish caught from Arabian Gulf. Metal concentrations in all the samples were measured using Graphite Furnace Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (GF-AAS). Analytical validation of data was carried out by applying the same digestion procedure to standard reference material (NIST-SRM 1577b bovine liver). Levels of lead (Pb) in the liver tissue (0.60µg/g) exceeded the limit set by European Commission (2005) at 0.30 µg/g. Zinc concentration in all tissue samples were below the maximum permissible limit (50 µg/g) as set by FAO. Maximum mean cadmium concentration was found to be 0.15 µg/g in the kidney tissues. Highest content of Mn in the studied tissues was seen in the kidney tissue (2.13 µg/g), whereas minimum was found in muscle tissue (0.87 µg/g). The present study led to the conclusion that muscle tissue is the least contaminated tissue in Lethrinus Miniatus and consumption of organs should be avoided as much as possible.

Keywords: Heavy Metals, Arabian Gulf, atomic absorption spectroscopy, lethrinus miniatus

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3 Levels of Toxic Metals in Different Tissues of Lethrinus miniatus Fish from Arabian Gulf

Authors: Muhammad Waqar Ashraf, Atiq A. Mian

Abstract:

In the present study, accumulation of eight heavy metals, lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), manganese (Mn), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), iron (Fe), nickel (Ni) and chromium (Cr)was determined in kidney, heart, liver and muscle tissues of Lethrinus miniatus fish caught from Arabian Gulf. Metal concentrations in all the samples were measured using Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy. Analytical validation of data was carried out by applying the same digestion procedure to standard reference material (NIST-SRM 1577b bovine liver). Levels of lead (Pb) in the liver tissue (0.60µg/g) exceeded the limit set by European Commission (2005) at 0.30 µg/g. Zinc concentration in all tissue samples were below the maximum permissible limit (50 µg/g) as set by FAO. Maximum mean cadmium concentration was found 0.15 µg/g in the kidney tissues. Highest content of Mn in the studied tissues was seen in the kidney tissue (2.13 µg/g), whereas minimum was found in muscle tissue (0.87 µg/g). The present study led to the conclusion that muscle tissue is the least contaminated tissue in Lethrinus miniatus and consumption of organs should be avoided as much as possible.

Keywords: Heavy Metals, Arabian Gulf, atomic absorption spectroscopy, lethrinus miniatus

Procedia PDF Downloads 227
2 Magnetic Treatment of Irrigation Water and Its Effect on Water Salinity

Authors: Muhammad Waqar Ashraf

Abstract:

The influence of magnetic field on the structure of water and aqueous solutions are similar and can alter the physical and chemical properties of water-dispersed systems. With the application of magnetic field, hydration of salt ions and other impurities slides down and improve the possible technological characteristics of the water. Magnetic field can enhance the characteristic of water i.e. better salt solubility, kinetic changes in salt crystallization, accelerated coagulation, etc. Gulf countries are facing critical problem due to depletion of water resources and increasing food demands to cover the human needs; therefore water shortage is being increasingly accepted as a major limitation for increased agricultural production and food security. In arid and semi-arid regions sustainable agricultural development is influenced to a great extent by water quality that might be used economically and effectively in developing agriculture programs. In the present study, the possibility of using magnetized water to desalinate the soil is accounted for the enhanced dissolving capacity of the magnetized water. Magnetic field has been applied to treat brackish water. The study showed that the impact of magnetic field on saline water is sustained up to three hours (with and without shaking). These results suggest that even low magnetic field can decrease the electrical conductivity and total dissolved solids which are good for the removal of salinity from the irrigated land by using magnetized water.

Keywords: magnetic treatment, saline water, hardness of water, removal of salinity

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1 Levels of Selected Heavy Metals in Varieties of Vegetable oils Consumed in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and Health Risk Assessment of Local Population

Authors: Muhammad Waqar Ashraf

Abstract:

Selected heavy metals, namely Cu, Zn, Fe, Mn, Cd, Pb, and As, in seven popular varieties of edible vegetable oils collected from Saudi Arabia, were determined by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GF-AAS) using microwave digestion. The accuracy of procedure was confirmed by certified reference materials (NIST 1577b). The concentrations for copper, zinc, iron, manganese, lead and arsenic were observed in the range of 0.035 - 0.286, 0.955 - 3.10, 17.3 - 57.8, 0.178 - 0.586, 0.011 - 0.017 and 0.011 - 0.018 µg/g, respectively. Cadmium was found to be in the range of 2.36 - 6.34 ng/g. The results are compared internationally and with standards laid down by world health agencies. A risk assessment study has been carried out to assess exposure to these metals via consumption of vegetable oils. A comparison has been made with safety intake levels for these heavy metals recommended by Institute of Medicine of the National Academies (IOM), US Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) and Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA). The results indicated that the dietary intakes of the selected heavy metals from daily consumption of 25 g of edible vegetable oils for a 70 kg individual should pose no significant health risk to local population.

Keywords: Heavy Metals, Contamination, Health Risk Assessment, vegetable oils

Procedia PDF Downloads 310