Hyeon-Kyo Lim

Abstracts

6 Cognitive Characteristics of Industrial Workers in Fuzzy Risk Assessment

Authors: Hyeon-Kyo Lim, Sang-Hun Byun

Abstract:

Risk assessment is carried out in most industrial plants for accident prevention, but there exists insufficient data for statistical decision making. It is commonly said that risk can be expressed as a product of consequence and likelihood of a corresponding hazard factor. Eventually, therefore, risk assessment involves human decision making which cannot be objective per se. This study was carried out to comprehend perceptive characteristics of human beings in industrial plants. Subjects were shown a set of illustrations describing scenes of industrial plants, and were asked to assess the risk of each scene with not only linguistic variables but also numeric scores in the aspect of consequence and likelihood. After that, their responses were formulated as fuzzy membership functions, and compared with those of university students who had no experience of industrial works. The results showed that risk level of industrial workers were lower than those of any other groups, which implied that the workers might generally have a tendency to neglect more hazard factors in their work fields.

Keywords: Risk Assessment, Linguistic Variable, Fuzzy, Hazard

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5 Management of Fitness-For-Duty for Human Error Prevention in Nuclear Power Plants

Authors: Hyeon-Kyo Lim, Tong-Il Jang, Yong-Hee Lee

Abstract:

For the past several decades, not a few researchers have warned that even a trivial human error may result in unexpected accidents, especially in Nuclear Power Plants. To prevent accidents in Nuclear Power Plants, it is quite indispensable to make any factors under the effective control that may raise the possibility of human errors for accident prevention. This study aimed to develop a risk management program, especially in the sense that guaranteeing Fitness-for-Duty (FFD) of human beings working in Nuclear Power Plants. Throughout a literal survey, it was found that work stress and fatigue are major psychophysical factors requiring sophisticated management. A set of major management factors related to work stress and fatigue was through repetitive literal surveys and classified into several categories. To maintain the fitness of human workers, a 4-level – individual worker, team, staff within plants, and external professional - approach was adopted for FFD management program. Moreover, the program was arranged to envelop the whole employment cycle from selection and screening of workers, job allocation, and job rotation. Also, a managerial care program was introduced for employee assistance based on the concept of Employee Assistance Program (EAP). The developed program was reviewed with repetition by ex-operators in nuclear power plants, and assessed in the affirmative. As a whole, responses implied additional treatment to guarantee high performance of human workers not only in normal operations but also in emergency situations. Consequently, the program is under administrative modification for practical application.

Keywords: Fatigue, Human error, work stress, Fitness-For-Duty (FFD), Employee-Assistance-Program (EAP)

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4 Development of a Work-Related Stress Management Program Guaranteeing Fitness-For-Duty for Human Error Prevention

Authors: Hyeon-Kyo Lim, Tong-Il Jang, Yong-Hee Lee

Abstract:

Human error is one of the most dreaded factors that may result in unexpected accidents, especially in nuclear power plants. For accident prevention, it is quite indispensable to analyze and to manage the influence of any factor which may raise the possibility of human errors. Out of lots factors, stress has been reported to have a significant influence on human performance. Therefore, this research aimed to develop a work-related stress management program which can guarantee Fitness-for-Duty (FFD) of the workers in nuclear power plants, especially those working in main control rooms. Major stress factors were elicited through literal surveys and classified into major categories such as demands, supports, and relationships. To manage those factors, a test and intervention program based on 4-level approaches was developed over the whole employment cycle including selection and screening of workers, job allocation, and job rotation. In addition, a managerial care program was introduced with the concept of Employee-Assistance-Program (EAP) program. Reviews on the program conducted by ex-operators in nuclear power plants showed responses in the affirmative, and suggested additional treatment to guarantee high performance of human workers, not in normal operations but also in emergency situations.

Keywords: Human error, work performance, work stress, Fitness-For-Duty (FFD), Employee Assistance Program (EAP)

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3 Formulation of a Stress Management Program for Human Error Prevention in Nuclear Power Plants

Authors: Hyeon-Kyo Lim, Tong-Il Jang, Yong-Hee Lee

Abstract:

As for any nuclear power plant, human error is one of the most dreaded factors that may result in unexpected accidents. Thus, for accident prevention, it is quite indispensable to analyze and to manage the influence of any factor which may raise the possibility of human errors. Among lots factors, stress has been reported to have significant influence on human performance. Stress level of a person may fluctuate over time. To handle the possibility over time, robust stress management program is required, especially in nuclear power plants. Therefore, to overcome the possibility of human errors, this study aimed to develop a stress management program as a part of Fitness-for-Duty (FFD) Program for the workers in nuclear power plants. The meaning of FFD might be somewhat different by research objectives, appropriate definition of FFD was accomplished in this study with special reference to human error prevention, and diverse stress factors were elicited for management of human error susceptibility. In addition, with consideration of conventional FFD management programs, appropriate tests and interventions were introduced over the whole employment cycle including selection and screening of workers, job allocation, job rotation, and disemployment as well as Employee-Assistance-Program (EAP). The results showed that most tools mainly concentrated their weights on common organizational factors such as Demands, Supports, and Relationships in sequence, which were referred as major stress factors.

Keywords: stress, Accident prevention, Fatigue, Human error, work performance

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2 Assessment of Time-variant Work Stress for Human Error Prevention

Authors: Hyeon-Kyo Lim, Tong-Il Jang, Yong-Hee Lee

Abstract:

For an operator in a nuclear power plant, human error is one of the most dreaded factors that may result in unexpected accidents. The possibility of human errors may be low, but the risk of them would be unimaginably enormous. Thus, for accident prevention, it is quite indispensable to analyze the influence of any factors which may raise the possibility of human errors. During the past decades, not a few research results showed that performance of human operators may vary over time due to lots of factors. Among them, stress is known to be an indirect factor that may cause human errors and result in mental illness. Until now, not a few assessment tools have been developed to assess stress level of human workers. However, it still is questionable to utilize them for human performance anticipation which is related with human error possibility, because they were mainly developed from the viewpoint of mental health rather than industrial safety. Stress level of a person may go up or down with work time. In that sense, if they would be applicable in the safety aspect, they should be able to assess the variation resulted from work time at least. Therefore, this study aimed to compare their applicability for safety purpose. More than 10 kinds of work stress tools were analyzed with reference to assessment items, assessment and analysis methods, and follow-up measures which are known to close related factors with work stress. The results showed that most tools mainly focused their weights on some common organizational factors such as demands, supports, and relationships, in sequence. Their weights were broadly similar. However, they failed to recommend practical solutions. Instead, they merely advised to set up overall counterplans in PDCA cycle or risk management activities which would be far from practical human error prevention. Thus, it was concluded that application of stress assessment tools mainly developed for mental health seemed to be impractical for safety purpose with respect to human performance anticipation, and that development of a new assessment tools would be inevitable if anyone wants to assess stress level in the aspect of human performance variation and accident prevention. As a consequence, as practical counterplans, this study proposed a new scheme for assessment of work stress level of a human operator that may vary over work time which is closely related with the possibility of human errors.

Keywords: Accident prevention, human performance, Human error, work stress, assessment tool, time-variant

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1 Comprehensive Risk Analysis of Decommissioning Activities with Multifaceted Hazard Factors

Authors: Kune-Woo Lee, Hyeon-Kyo Lim, Hyunjung Kim

Abstract:

Decommissioning process of nuclear facilities can be said to consist of a sequence of problem solving activities, partly because there may exist working environments contaminated by radiological exposure, and partly because there may also exist industrial hazards such as fire, explosions, toxic materials, and electrical and physical hazards. As for an individual hazard factor, risk assessment techniques are getting known to industrial workers with advance of safety technology, but the way how to integrate those results is not. Furthermore, there are few workers who experienced decommissioning operations a lot in the past. Therefore, not a few countries in the world have been trying to develop appropriate counter techniques in order to guarantee safety and efficiency of the process. In spite of that, there still exists neither domestic nor international standard since nuclear facilities are too diverse and unique. In the consequence, it is quite inevitable to imagine and assess the whole risk in the situation anticipated one by one. This paper aimed to find out an appropriate technique to integrate individual risk assessment results from the viewpoint of experts. Thus, on one hand the whole risk assessment activity for decommissioning operations was modeled as a sequence of individual risk assessment steps, and on the other, a hierarchical risk structure was developed. Then, risk assessment procedure that can elicit individual hazard factors one by one were introduced with reference to the standard operation procedure (SOP) and hierarchical task analysis (HTA). With an assumption of quantification and normalization of individual risks, a technique to estimate relative weight factors was tried by using the conventional Analytic Hierarchical Process (AHP) and its result was reviewed with reference to judgment of experts. Besides, taking the ambiguity of human judgment into consideration, debates based upon fuzzy inference was added with a mathematical case study.

Keywords: Decommissioning, Risk Assessment, analytic hierarchical process (AHP), fuzzy inference

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