Fatimah A. Alhomaid


3 Role of Molecular Changes and Immunohistochemical in Early Detection of Liver Cancer

Authors: Fatimah A. Alhomaid


The present study was planned to investigate the role of molecular changes and immunohistochemical in early detection of liver cancer in Saudi patients. our results were carried out on 54 patients liver cancer. We obtained our data from laboratory in King Khalid University Hospital. The specimens were taken (54) patients with liver cancer 34 male and 14 female and 2 control. The average age of varied from 37-85 years. The tumor was diagnosed as grade I in tow patients (male and female) and grade 2 in 45 patients (28 male and 17 female) while the grade 3 in 4 patients (all males). The specimens were processed for haematoxylin and eosin staining, immunohistochemical technique and flow cytometry analysis. Our study noted that most patients had adenocarcinoma which characterized by presence of signet-ring cells were very clear in advanced patients with adenocarcinoma. Our sections in adenocarcinoma in grade 2 and stage 3 had an increase in signet ring cells,an increase in the acini of glands and an increase in number of lymphocytes which spread to the muscular layer. With advancing the disease, there were haemorrhage in blood and increase in lymphocytes and increase in the number of nuclei in the tubular glands. Our study was carried on 48 patients, immunohistochemical diagnosis (CK20, PCNA, P53) and the analysis of DNA content by flow cytometry technique. Our study indicated that the presence of correlation between the immunohistochemical analysis for P53 and the grades. The reaction of P53 appeared as strong in nucleus in grades &stage 3 and appeared in other sections as dark brown pigment. Our study indicated that the absence of correlation between the immunohistochemical analysis for PCAN and the grades. In our sections there were strong reaction in the more 80% of nuclei in grade 1& stage 2. Our study indicated that the presence of correlation between the immunohistochemical analysis for CK20 and the grades. Our results indicated the presence of positive reaction in cytoplasm varied from weak to moderate in grade 3 & stage 4. Concerning the Flow cytometry technique our results indicated that the presence of correlation between the DNA and different stages of liver cancer.

Keywords: Cancer, Liver, Dna, Molecular Changes, P53, PCNA, CK20, cytometry analysis, immunohistochemical

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2 Post-Hatching Development of the Cloacal Bursa in Chicken

Authors: Fatimah A. Alhomaid


A total of 40 one day-old LSL chicks (Lohman Selected Loghorn) were used in this study. In 20 days-old chicks, the bursa was formed of mucosa, musculosa and serosa. Its lamina propria was lymphoid in nature. After hatching, the bursa continued to grow and became fully developed at the 30th day post- hatching. It appeared as a blind sac. Its lumen was occupied by 12-13 mucosal folds. Each fold was lined by tall columnar or pseudo- stratified columnar epithelium. Its core was made of lamina propria infiltrated by a large number of lymphoid follicles. Most follicles possessed an outer corona surrounding a germinal center. At the age of 6 weeks physiological regression of the bursa was observed. The lymphoid follicles were decreased in size, the lymphocytes were depleted and the interfollicular stroma became obvious, thicker and more fibrous. Fibrosis of the lymphoid follicles was frequently seen in some sections at the age of 30 weeks.

Keywords: Lymphocytes, bursa of fabricius, cloacal Bursa

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1 Correlations between Folate, Homocysteine Levels, and Markers of Brain Atrophy in Elderly Male and Female Rats

Authors: Fatimah A. Alhomaid, Nadia H. Mahmoud, Maha A. Al-Qaraawi


The present study was designed to induce hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy) in elderly male and female rats. Also,to evaluate, the effect of (HHcy) as a risk factor for cerebrovascular disease and brain atrophy and folate supplementation on serum levels of Hcy, total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLc), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLc), triglycerides, pyridoxal phosphate , folate also, histopathological examination of brain and cerebrovascular vessels In this work 50 male and 50 female elderly albino rats were used and divided into five groups. The first group served as control, the second and third group received two different dose of L-methionine, the fourth and fifth group received fortified diet with folate powder plus L-methionine. Our results showed that homocysteine levels in male and female rats that received low and high dose of methionine were higher than in the control group, while the levels of folate significantly decreased in male rats only. Induced hyperhomocysteinemia in elderly male and female rats led to significant increase in serum level of cholesterol, LDLc and triglycerides but serum level of HDLc were significantly lower in methionine treated male and female rats than in control. Our results showed that a strong positive correlation between all these parameters and homocysteine except HDLc levels which correlate negatively to Hcy levels. Administration of folate to methionine treated male rats led to insignificant changes in the level of cholesterol when compared to control group but this level was found to be significantly decrease in female rats received small dose of methionine. When the level of cholesterol compared to the same dose of methionine treated group we found a significant decrease in both male and female rats. LDLc and triglycerides level significantly decrease in male rats only versus the control rats, while when compared to low and high dose of methionine a significant decreased occurs. A significant increase in serum level of HDLc in male and female rats when compared to both control and methionine treated groups. In male and female rats supplemented with folate we found an increased serum levels of folate when compared to rats received both dose of methionine. The levels of pyridoxal phosphate significantly decreased in all treated rats compared to the control group and its level were increased with supplementation of folate versus the rats received small and large dose of methionine. It can be concluded that hyperhomocysteinemia may be an additional risk factor for cerebrovascular atherosclesosis and brain atrophy in elderly people and diatery supplementation with folate blocking the activity of homocysteine and may be considered as a therapeutic possibility.

Keywords: hyperhomocysteinemia, brain atrophy, cerebrovascular, L-methionine, pyridoxal phosphate

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