Muhammad Shoaib

Abstracts

4 Simultaneous Adsorption and Characterization of NOx and SOx Emissions from Power Generation Plant on Sliced Porous Activated Carbon Prepared by Physical Activation

Authors: Muhammad Shoaib, Hassan M. Al-Swaidan

Abstract:

Air pollution has been a major challenge for the scientists today, due to the release of toxic emissions from various industries like power plants, desalination plants, industrial processes and transportation vehicles. Harmful emissions into the air represent an environmental pressure that reflects negatively on human health and productivity, thus leading to a real loss in the national economy. Variety of air pollutants in the form of carbon oxides, hydrocarbons, nitrogen oxides, sulfur oxides, suspended particulate material etc. are present in air due to the combustion of different types of fuels like crude oil, diesel oil and natural gas. Among various pollutants, NOx and SOx emissions are considered as highly toxic due to its carcinogenicity and its relation with various health disorders. In Kingdom of Saudi Arabia electricity is generated by burning of crude, diesel or natural gas in the turbines of electricity stations. Out of these three, crude oil is used extensively for electricity generation. Due to the burning of the crude oil there are heavy contents of gaseous pollutants like sulfur dioxides (SOx) and nitrogen oxides (NOx), gases which are ultimately discharged in to the environment and is a serious environmental threat. The breakthrough point in case of lab studies using 1 gm of sliced activated carbon adsorbant comes after 20 and 30 minutes for NOx and SOx, respectively, whereas in case of PP8 plant breakthrough point comes in seconds. The saturation point in case of lab studies comes after 100 and 120 minutes and for actual PP8 plant it comes after 60 and 90 minutes for NOx and SOx adsorption, respectively. Surface characterization of NOx and SOx adsorption on SAC confirms the presence of peaks in the FT-IR spectrum. CHNS study verifies that the SAC is suitable for NOx and SOx along with some other C and H containing compounds coming out from stack emission stream from the turbines of a power plant.

Keywords: Power Plants, activated carbon, flue gases, NOx and SOx adsorption, physical activation

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3 Family Values and Honest Attitudes in Pakistan: The Role of Tolerance and Justice Attitudes

Authors: Muhammad Shoaib

Abstract:

The aim of the study is to examine the effects of family values on honest attitudes by the mediation of tolerance attitudes and justice attitudes among family members. As many other developing settings, Pakistani society is undergoing a rapid and multifaceted social changes, in which traditional thinking coexists and often clashes with modern thinking. Family values have great effects on the honest attitudes among family members as well as all the members of Pakistani society. Tolerance attitudes, justice attitudes, personal experiences and modernity factors are contributing to the development of honest attitudes among family members. Family values attitudes enhance the concept of honesty feelings, fairness, and less thinking towards theft. For the present study 520 respondents were sampled from two urban areas of Punjab province; Lahore and Faisalabad, through proportionate random sampling technique. A survey method was used as a technique of data collection and an interview schedule was administered to collect information from the respondents. The results shows similar positive effects of tolerance and justice attitudes on honest attitude by the mediation of family values attitudes.

Keywords: Justice, Tolerance, attitudes, Pakistan, family values, honesty

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2 Rational Thinking and Forgiveness in Pakistan: The Role of Democratic Values and Mass Media Attitude

Authors: Muhammad Shoaib

Abstract:

Every society has a set of beliefs, norms, values, folkways, mores and laws. All the principles, customs, traditions and procedures of societies are directly or indirectly related to the religion of the society and changed with the passage of time by the mediation of democratic values attitudes and mass media influence. The main objective of the present study is to examine the effects of rational thinking values on forgiveness attitude by the mediation of democratic values and mass media attitude among family members. As many other developing settings, Pakistani society is undergoing a rapid and multifaceted social change, in which traditional thinking coexists and often clashes with modern thinking. Rational thinking attitude has great effects on the forgiveness attitude among family members as well as all the members of Pakistani society. For the present study 520 respondents were sampled from two urban areas of Punjab province; Lahore and Faisalabad, through proportionate random sampling technique. A survey method was used as a technique of data collection and an interview schedule was administered to collect information from the respondents. The results support that the net of other factors, favorable democratic values attitudes are positively associated rational thinking attitudes. The results also provide support that all other things equal, mass media attitudes also have a significant positive effect on rational thinking attitudes. Favorable democratic values attitudes have a significant net positive effect and the effect of mass media attitudes is positive and statistically highly significant. It shows that the effects of both democratic values attitudes and mass media attitudes diminish in magnitude when the rational thinking attitudes scale is included. However, the effect of democratic values remains highly significant. In comparison, the effect of mass media attitudes is only marginally significant.

Keywords: Mass Media, attitudes, Pakistan, rationality, forgiveness, democratic values

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1 Effect of Ramp Rate on the Preparation of Activated Carbon from Saudi Date Tree Fronds (Agro Waste) by Physical Activation Method

Authors: Muhammad Shoaib, Hassan M Al-Swaidan

Abstract:

Saudi Arabia is the major date producer in the world. In order to maximize the production from date tree, pruning of the date trees is required annually. Large amount of this agriculture waste material (palm tree fronds) is available in Saudi Arabia and considered as an ideal source as a precursor for production of activated carbon (AC). The single step procedure for the preparation of micro porous activated carbon (AC) from Saudi date tree fronds using mixture of gases (N2 and CO2) is carried out at carbonization/activation temperature at 850°C and at different ramp rates of 10, 20 and 30 degree per minute. Alloy 330 horizontal reactor is used for tube furnace. Flow rate of nitrogen and carbon dioxide gases are kept at 150 ml/min and 50 ml/min respectively during the preparation. Characterization results reveal that the BET surface area, pore volume, and average pore diameter of the resulting activated carbon generally decreases with the increase in ramp rate. The activated carbon prepared at a ramp rate of 10 degrees/minute attains larger surface area and can offer higher potential to produce activated carbon of greater adsorption capacity from agriculture wastes such as date fronds. The BET surface areas of the activated carbons prepared at a ramp rate of 10, 20 and 30 degree/minute after 30 minutes activation time are 1094, 1020 and 515 m2/g, respectively. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) for surface morphology, and FTIR for functional groups was carried out that also verified the same trend. Moreover, by increasing the ramp rate from 10 and 20 degrees/min the yield remains same, i.e. 18%, whereas at a ramp rate of 30 degrees/min the yield increases from 18 to 20%. Thus, it is feasible to produce high-quality micro porous activated carbon from date frond agro waste using N2 carbonization followed by physical activation with CO2 and N2 mixture. This micro porous activated carbon can be used as adsorbent of heavy metals from wastewater, NOx SOx emission adsorption from ambient air and electricity generation plants, purification of gases, sewage treatment and many other applications.

Keywords: Applied Chemistry, Agricultural waste, activated carbon, date tree fronds

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