T. Garba

Abstracts

7 Environmental and Health Risks Associated with Dental Waste Management: A Review

Authors: T. Garba, Y. Y. Babanyara, B. A. Gana, M. A. Batari

Abstract:

Proper management of dental waste is a crucial issue for maintaining human health and the environment. The waste generated in the dental clinics has the potential for spreading infections and causing diseases, so improper disposal of these dental wastes can cause harm to the dentist, the people in immediate vicinity of the dentist, waste handlers, general public and the environment through production of toxins or as by-products of the destruction process. Staff that provide dental healthcare ought to be aware of the proper handling and the system of management of dental waste used by different dental hospitals. The method of investigation adopted in the paper involved a desk study in which documents and records relating to dental waste handling were studied to obtain background information on existing dental waste management in Nigeria other countries of the world are also mentioned as examples. Additionally, information on generation, handling, segregation, risk associated during handling and treatment of dental medical waste were sought in order to determine the best method for safe disposal. This article provides dentists with the information they need to properly dispose of mercury and amalgam waste, and provides suggestions for managing the other wastes that result from the day-to-day activities of a dental office such as: used X-ray fixers and developers; cleaners for X-ray developer systems; lead foils, shields and aprons; chemiclave/chemical sterilant solutions; disinfectants, cleaners, and other chemicals; and, general office waste. Additionally, this study may be beneficial for authorities and researchers of developing countries to work towards improving their present dental waste management system.

Keywords: Waste Management, Environment, Dental, Disposal, clinic

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6 An Examination of Changes on Natural Vegetation due to Charcoal Production Using Multi Temporal Land SAT Data

Authors: T. Garba, Y. Y. Babanyara, M. Isah, A. K. Muktari, R. Y. Abdullahi

Abstract:

The increased in demand of fuel wood for heating, cooking and sometimes bakery has continued to exert appreciable impact on natural vegetation. This study focus on the use of multi-temporal data from land sat TM of 1986, land sat EMT of 1999 and lands sat ETM of 2006 to investigate the changes of Natural Vegetation resulting from charcoal production activities. The three images were classified based on bare soil, built up areas, cultivated land, and natural vegetation, Rock out crop and water bodies. From the classified images Land sat TM of 1986 it shows natural vegetation of the study area to be 308,941.48 hectares equivalent to 50% of the area it then reduces to 278,061.21 which is 42.92% in 1999 it again depreciated to 199,647.81 in 2006 equivalent to 30.83% of the area. Consequently cultivated continue increasing from 259,346.80 hectares (42%) in 1986 to 312,966.27 hectares (48.3%) in 1999 and then to 341.719.92 hectares (52.78%). These show that within the span of 20 years (1986 to 2006) the natural vegetation is depreciated by 119,293.81 hectares. This implies that if the menace is not control the natural might likely be lost in another twenty years. This is because forest cleared for charcoal production is normally converted to farmland. The study therefore concluded that there is the need for alternatives source of domestic energy such as the use of biomass which can easily be accessible and affordable to people. In addition, the study recommended that there should be strong policies enforcement for the protection forest reserved.

Keywords: Data, Images, classification, Land Use, charcoal, natural vegetation

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5 Application of Change Detection Techniques in Monitoring Environmental Phenomena: A Review

Authors: T. Garba, T. O. Quddus, Y. Y. Babanyara, A. K. Mukatari

Abstract:

Human activities make environmental parameters in order to keep on changing globally. While some changes are necessary and beneficial to flora and fauna, others have serious consequences threatening the survival of their natural habitat if these changes are not properly monitored and mitigated. In-situ assessments are characterized by many challenges due to the absence of time series data and sometimes areas to be observed or monitored are inaccessible. Satellites Remote Sensing provide us with the digital images of same geographic areas within a pre-defined interval. This makes it possible to monitor and detect changes of environmental phenomena. This paper, therefore, reviewed the commonly use changes detection techniques globally such as image differencing, image rationing, image regression, vegetation index difference, change vector analysis, principal components analysis, multidate classification, post-classification comparison, and visual interpretation. The paper concludes by suggesting the use of more than one technique.

Keywords: Techniques, change detection, environmental phenomena, monitor

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4 Change Detection of Vegetative Areas Using Land Use Land Cover of Desertification Vulnerable Areas in Nigeria

Authors: T. Garba, K. G. Ilellah, Y. Y. Sabo A. Babanyara, A. K. Mutari

Abstract:

This study used the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and maps compiled from the classification of Landsat TM and Landsat ETM images of 1986 and 1999 respectively and Nigeria sat 1 images of 2007 to quantify changes in land use and land cover in selected areas of Nigeria covering 143,609 hectares that are threatened by the encroaching Sahara desert. The results of this investigation revealed a decrease in natural vegetation over the three time slices (1986, 1999 and 2007) which was characterised by an increase in high positive pixel values from 0.04 in 1986 to 0.22 and 0.32 in 1999 and 2007 respectively and, a decrease in natural vegetation from 74,411.60ha in 1986 to 28,591.93ha and 21,819.19ha in 1999 and 2007 respectively. The same results also revealed a periodic trend in which there was progressive increase in the cultivated area from 60,191.87ha in 1986 to 104,376.07ha in 1999 and a terminal decrease to 88,868.31ha in 2007. These findings point to expansion of vegetated and cultivated areas in in the initial period between 1988 and 1996 and reversal of these increases in the terminal period between 1988 and 1996. The study also revealed progressive expansion of built-up areas from 1, 681.68ha in 1986 to 2,661.82ha in 1999 and to 3,765.35ha in 2007. These results argue for the urgent need to protect and conserve the depleting natural vegetation by adopting sustainable human resource use practices i.e. intensive farming in order to minimize persistent depletion of natural vegetation.

Keywords: classification, Desertification, changes, vegetation changes

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3 Efficacy of Remote Sensing Application in Monitoring the Effectiveness of Afforestation Project in Northern Nigeria

Authors: T. Garba, T. O. Quddus, Y. Y. Babanyara, M. A. Modibbo, K. G. Ilellah, M. J. Sani

Abstract:

After the United Nation Convention on Desertification (UNCD) in 1977 which was preceded by extensive, regional, and local studies, and consultations with numerous scientists, decision-makers, and relevant institutions. Global Plan of Action to Combat Desertification (PACD) was formulated, endorsed by member Countries. The role of implementing PACD was vested with Governments of countries affected by desertification. The Federal Government of Nigeria as a signatory and World Bank funded and implement afforestation project aimed at combating desertification between 1988 and 1999. This research, therefore, applied remote sensing techniques to assess the effectiveness of the project. To achieve that a small portion of about 143,609 hectares was curved out from the project area. Normalized Difference of the Vegetative Index (NDVI) and Land Use Land Cover were derived from Landsat TM 1986, Landsat ETM 1999 and Nigeria Sat 1, 2007 of the project area. The findings show that there was an increase in cultivated area due to the project from 1986 through 1999 and 2007. This is further buttressed by the three NDVI imageries due to their high positive pixel value from 0.04 in 1986 to 0.22 in 1999 and to 0.32 in 2007 These signifies the gradual physical development of Afforestation project in the area. In addition, it was also verified by histograms of changes in vegetation which indicated an increased vegetative cover from 60,192 in 1986, to 102,476 in 1999 and then to 88,343 in 2007. The study concluded that Remote Sensing approach has actually confirmed that the project was indeed successful and effective.

Keywords: Remote Sensing, Desertification, Afforestation, vegetative index, landsat

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2 Medical Waste Management in Nigeria: A Case Study

Authors: T. Garba, Y. Y. Babanyara, D. B. Ibrahim

Abstract:

Proper management of medical waste is a crucial issue for maintaining human health and the environment. The waste generated in the hospitals has the potential for spreading infections and causing diseases. The study is aimed at assessing the medical waste management practices in Nigeria. Three instruments, questionnaire administration, in-depth interview and observation method for data collection were adopted in the study. The results revealed that the hospital does not quantify medical waste. Segregation of medical wastes is not conducted according to definite rules and standards. Wheeled trolleys are used for on-site transportation of waste from the points of production to the temporary storage area. Offsite transportation of the hospital waste is undertaken by a private waste management company. Small pickups are mainly used to transport waste daily to an off-site area for treatment and disposal. The main treatment method used in the final disposal of infectious waste is incineration. Non-infectious waste is disposed off using land disposal method. The study showed that the hospital does not have a policy and plan in place for managing medical waste. The study revealed number of problems the hospital faces in terms of medical waste management, including; lack of necessary rules, regulations and instructions on the different aspects of collections and disposal of waste, failure to quantify the waste generated in reliable records, lack of use of coloured bags by limiting the bags to only one colour for all waste, the absence of a dedicated waste manager, and no committee responsible for monitoring the management of medical waste. Recommendations are given with the aim of improving medical waste management in the hospital.

Keywords: Public Health, treatment, Disposal, medical waste

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1 Change Detection of Vegetative Areas Using Land Use Land Cover Derived from NDVI of Desert Encroached Areas

Authors: T. Garba, T. O. Quddus, Y. Y. Babanyara, M. A. Modibbo

Abstract:

Desertification is define as the changing of productive land into a desert as the result of ruination of land by man-induced soil erosion, which forces famers in the affected areas to move migrate or encourage into reserved areas in search of a fertile land for their farming activities. This study therefore used remote sensing imageries to determine the level of changes in the vegetative areas. To achieve that Normalized Difference of the Vegetative Index (NDVI), classified imageries and image slicing derived from landsat TM 1986, land sat ETM 1999 and Nigeria sat 1 2007 were used to determine changes in vegetations. From the Classified imageries it was discovered that there a more natural vegetation in classified images of 1986 than that of 1999 and 2007. This finding is also future in the three NDVI imageries, it was discovered that there is increased in high positive pixel value from 0.04 in 1986 to 0.22 in 1999 and to 0.32 in 2007. The figures in the three histogram also indicted that there is increased in vegetative areas from 29.15 Km2 in 1986, to 60.58 Km2 in 1999 and then to 109 Km2 in 2007. The study recommends among other things that there is need to restore natural vegetation through discouraging of farming activities in and around the natural vegetation in the study area.

Keywords: Vegetation, vegetative index, classified imageries, change detection, landsat

Procedia PDF Downloads 221