G. Elia

Publications

1 An Improved Approach for Hybrid Rocket Injection System Design

Authors: M. Invigorito, G. Elia, M. Panelli

Abstract:

Hybrid propulsion combines beneficial properties of both solid and liquid rockets, such as multiple restarts, throttability as well as simplicity and reduced costs. A nitrous oxide (N2O)/paraffin-based hybrid rocket engine demonstrator is currently under development at the Italian Aerospace Research Center (CIRA) within the national research program HYPROB, funded by the Italian Ministry of Research. Nitrous oxide belongs to the class of self-pressurizing propellants that exhibit a high vapor pressure at standard ambient temperature. This peculiar feature makes those fluids very attractive for space rocket applications because it avoids the use of complex pressurization systems, leading to great benefits in terms of weight savings and reliability. To avoid feed-system-coupled instabilities, the phase change is required to occur through the injectors. In this regard, the oxidizer is stored in liquid condition while target chamber pressures are designed to lie below vapor pressure. The consequent cavitation and flash vaporization constitute a remarkably complex phenomenology that arises great modelling challenges. Thus, it is clear that the design of the injection system is fundamental for the full exploitation of hybrid rocket engine throttability. The Analytical Hierarchy Process has been used to select the injection architecture as best compromise among different design criteria such as functionality, technology innovation and cost. The impossibility to use engineering simplified relations for the dimensioning of the injectors led to the needs of applying a numerical approach based on OpenFOAM®. The numerical tool has been validated with selected experimental data from literature. Quantitative, as well as qualitative comparisons are performed in terms of mass flow rate and pressure drop across the injector for several operating conditions. The results show satisfactory agreement with the experimental data. Modeling assumptions, together with their impact on numerical predictions are discussed in the paper. Once assessed the reliability of the numerical tool, the injection plate has been designed and sized to guarantee the required amount of oxidizer in the combustion chamber and therefore to assure high combustion efficiency. To this purpose, the plate has been designed with multiple injectors whose number and diameter have been selected in order to reach the requested mass flow rate for the two operating conditions of maximum and minimum thrust. The overall design has been finally verified through three-dimensional computations in cavitating non-reacting conditions and it has been verified that the proposed design solution is able to guarantee the requested values of mass flow rates.

Keywords: cavitation, hybrid rocket, injection system design, OpenFOAM®

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Abstracts

2 A Case Study Report on Acoustic Impact Assessment and Mitigation of the Hyprob Research Plant

Authors: G. Elia, D. Bianco, A. Sollazzo, M. Barbarino, A. Smoraldi, N. Favaloro

Abstract:

The activities, described in the present paper, have been conducted in the framework of the HYPROB-New Program, carried out by the Italian Aerospace Research Centre (CIRA) promoted and funded by the Italian Ministry of University and Research (MIUR) in order to improve the National background on rocket engine systems for space applications. The Program has the strategic objective to improve National system and technology capabilities in the field of liquid rocket engines (LRE) for future Space Propulsion Systems applications, with specific regard to LOX/LCH4 technology. The main purpose of the HYPROB program is to design and build a Propulsion Test Facility (HIMP) allowing test activities on Liquid Thrusters. The development of skills in liquid rocket propulsion can only pass through extensive test campaign. Following its mission, CIRA has planned the development of new testing facilities and infrastructures for space propulsion characterized by adequate sizes and instrumentation. The IMP test cell is devoted to testing articles representative of small combustion chambers, fed with oxygen and methane, both in liquid and gaseous phase. This article describes the activities that have been carried out for the evaluation of the acoustic impact, and its consequent mitigation. The impact of the simulated acoustic disturbance has been evaluated, first, using an approximated method based on experimental data by Baumann and Coney, included in “Noise and Vibration Control Engineering” edited by Vér and Beranek. This methodology, used to evaluate the free-field radiation of jet in ideal acoustical medium, analyzes in details the jet noise and assumes sources acting at the same time. It considers as principal radiation sources the jet mixing noise, caused by the turbulent mixing of jet gas and the ambient medium. Empirical models, allowing a direct calculation of the Sound Pressure Level, are commonly used for rocket noise simulation. The model named after K. Eldred is probably one of the most exploited in this area. In this paper, an improvement of the Eldred Standard model has been used for a detailed investigation of the acoustical impact of the Hyprob facility. This new formulation contains an explicit expression for the acoustic pressure of each equivalent noise source, in terms of amplitude and phase, allowing the investigation of the sources correlation effects and their propagation through wave equations. In order to enhance the evaluation of the facility acoustic impact, including an assessment of the mitigation strategies to be set in place, a more advanced simulation campaign has been conducted using both an in-house code for noise propagation and scattering, and a commercial code for industrial noise environmental impact, CadnaA. The noise prediction obtained with the revised Eldred-based model has then been used for formulating an empirical/BEM (Boundary Element Method) hybrid approach allowing the evaluation of the barrier mitigation effect, at the design. This approach has been compared with the analogous empirical/ray-acoustics approach, implemented within CadnaA using a customized definition of sources and directivity factor. The resulting impact evaluation study is reported here, along with the design-level barrier optimization for noise mitigation.

Keywords: Mitigation, Industrial Noise, acoustic impact, rocket noise

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1 An Improved Approach for Hybrid Rocket Injection System Design

Authors: M. Invigorito, G. Elia, M. Panelli

Abstract:

Hybrid propulsion combines beneficial properties of both solid and liquid rockets, such as multiple restarts, throttability as well as simplicity and reduced costs. A nitrous oxide (N2O)/paraffin-based hybrid rocket engine demonstrator is currently under development at the Italian Aerospace Research Center (CIRA) within the national research program HYPROB, funded by the Italian Ministry of Research. Nitrous oxide belongs to the class of self-pressurizing propellants that exhibit a high vapor pressure at standard ambient temperature. This peculiar feature makes those fluids very attractive for space rocket applications because it avoids the use of complex pressurization systems, leading to great benefits in terms of weight savings and reliability. To avoid feed-system-coupled instabilities, the phase change is required to occur through the injectors. In this regard, the oxidizer is stored in liquid condition while target chamber pressures are designed to lie below vapor pressure. The consequent cavitation and flash vaporization constitute a remarkably complex phenomenology that arises great modelling challenges. Thus, it is clear that the design of the injection system is fundamental for the full exploitation of hybrid rocket engine throttability. The Analytical Hierarchy Process has been used to select the injection architecture as best compromise among different design criteria such as functionality, technology innovation and cost. The impossibility to use engineering simplified relations for the dimensioning of the injectors led to the needs of applying a numerical approach based on OpenFOAM®. The numerical tool has been validated with selected experimental data from literature. Quantitative, as well as qualitative comparisons are performed in terms of mass flow rate and pressure drop across the injector for several operating conditions. The results show satisfactory agreement with the experimental data. Modeling assumptions, together with their impact on numerical predictions are discussed in the paper. Once assessed the reliability of the numerical tool, the injection plate has been designed and sized to guarantee the required amount of oxidizer in the combustion chamber and therefore to assure high combustion efficiency. To this purpose, the plate has been designed with multiple injectors whose number and diameter have been selected in order to reach the requested mass flow rate for the two operating conditions of maximum and minimum thrust. The overall design has been finally verified through three-dimensional computations in cavitating non-reacting conditions and it has been verified that the proposed design solution is able to guarantee the requested values of mass flow rates.

Keywords: cavitation, hybrid rocket, injection system design, OpenFOAM®

Procedia PDF Downloads 117