Mulugeta Shegaze

Publications

1 Magnitude and Determinants of Overweight and Obesity among High School Adolescents in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

Authors: Mulugeta Shegaze, Mekitie Wondafrash, Alemayehu A. Alemayehu, Shikur Mohammed, Zewdu Shewangezaw, Mukerem Abdo, Gebresilasea Gendisha

Abstract:

Background: The 2004 World Health Assembly called for specific actions to halt the overweight and obesity epidemic that is currently penetrating urban populations in the developing world. Adolescents require particular attention due to their vulnerability to develop obesity and the fact that adolescent weight tracks strongly into adulthood. However, there is scarcity of information on the modifiable risk factors to be targeted for primary intervention among urban adolescents in Ethiopia. This study was aimed at determining the magnitude and risk factors of overweight and obesity among high school adolescents in Addis Ababa. Methods: An institution-based cross-sectional study was conducted in February and March 2014 on 456 randomly selected adolescents from 20 high schools in Addis Ababa city.  Demographic data and other risk factors of overweight and obesity were collected using self-administered structured questionnaire, whereas anthropometric measurements of weight and height were taken using calibrated equipment and standardized techniques. The WHO STEPS instrument for chronic disease risk was applied to assess dietary habit and physical activity. Overweight and obesity status was determined based on BMI-for-age percentiles of WHO 2007 reference population. Results: The prevalence rates of overweight, obesity, and overall overweight/ obesity among high school adolescents in Addis Ababa were 9.7% (95%CI = 6.9-12.4%), 4.2% (95%CI = 2.3-6.0%), and 13.9% (95%CI = 10.6-17.1%), respectively. Overweight/obesity prevalence was highest among female adolescents, in private schools, and in the higher wealth category. In multivariable regression model, being female [AOR(95%CI) = 5.4(2.5,12.1)], being from private school [AOR(95%CI) = 3.0(1.4,6.2)], having >3 regular meals [AOR(95%CI) = 4.0(1.3,13.0)], consumption of sweet foods [AOR(95%CI) = 5.0(2.4,10.3)] and spending >3 hours/day sitting [AOR(95%CI) = 3.5(1.7,7.2)] were found to increase overweight/ obesity risk, whereas high Total Physical Activity level [AOR(95%CI) = 0.21(0.08,0.57)] and better nutrition knowledge [AOR(95%CI) = 0.160.07,0.37)] were found protective. Conclusions: More than one in ten of the high school adolescents were affected by overweight/obesity with dietary habit and physical activity are important modifiable risk factors. Well-tailored nutrition education program targeting lifestyle change should be initiated with more emphasis to female adolescents and students in private schools.

Keywords: Obesity, Overweight, Adolescents, NCDs

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Abstracts

2 Assessment of Utilization of Provider Initiated HIV Testing and Counseling and Associated Factors among Adult out Patient Department Patients in Wonchi Woreda, South West Shoa Zone, Central Ethiopia

Authors: Mulugeta Shegaze, Dinka Fikadu

Abstract:

Background: Currently in health facility, provider-initiated human immunodeficiency virus testing is the key entry point to prevention, care, treatment and support services, but most people remains unaware of their HIV status due to various reasons. In many high-prevalence countries, fewer than one in ten people with HIV are aware of their HIV status. HIV, the virus that causes AIDS, “acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, "has become one of the world’s most serious health and development challenges. Reaching individuals with HIV who do not know their serostatus is a global public health priority. Objective: To assess utilization of provider initiated HIV testing and counseling and associated factors among adult outpatient department patients. Methods: Health facility based cross sectional study was conducted among 392 adult outpatient department patients in Wonchi woreda from February 24 to March 24 /2013. The study participant was recruited patients from all adult outpatient department patients of all four public health facilities of wonchi woreda using systematic sampling. A structured interviewer administered questionnaire was used to elicit all important variables from the study participants and multiple logistic regression analysis was used. Result: A total of 371 adult outpatient department patients aged between 15 to 64 years were actively participated in the study and 291(78.4%) of them utilized provider initiated HIV testing and counseling and 80(21.6%) of them refused. Knowledge on HIV is low in the study population; majority of the participants didn’t have comprehensive knowledge (64.7%) and (35.3%) fail to reject misconception about means of HIV transmission and prevention. Utilization of provider-initiated HIV testing and counseling were associated with divorced/widowed marital status[AOR (95%CI) = 0.32(0.15, 0.69)], being male sex [AOR (95%CI) =1.81(1.01, 3.24)], having comprehensive knowledge on HIV [AOR (95%CI) =0.408(0.220,0.759)],having awareness about provider initiated HIV testing and counseling [AOR(95%CI) =2.89(1.48,5.66)] and receiving test on HIV before[AOR (95%CI)=4.15(2.30, 7.47)]. Conclusion: Utilization of provider initiated HIV testing and counseling among adult outpatient departments in wonchi woreda public health facility was [(78.4%)].Strengthening health information through mass media and peer education on HIV to address barrier to testing in the community such as low awareness on PITC, to increase up take of PITC among adult OPD patients.

Keywords: Utilization, Testing, human immune deficiency, provider, initiate

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1 Magnitude and Determinants of Overweight and Obesity among High School Adolescents in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

Authors: Mulugeta Shegaze, Mekitie Wondafrash, Alemayehu A. Alemayehu, Shikur Mohammed, Zewdu Shewangezaw, Mukerem Abdo, Gebresilasea Gendisha

Abstract:

Background: The 2004 World Health Assembly called for specific actions to halt the overweight and obesity epidemic that is currently penetrating urban populations in the developing world. Adolescents require particular attention due to their vulnerability to develop obesity and the fact that adolescent weight tracks strongly into adulthood. However, there is scarcity of information on the modifiable risk factors to be targeted for primary intervention among urban adolescents in Ethiopia. This study was aimed at determining the magnitude and risk factors of overweight and obesity among high school adolescents in Addis Ababa. Methods: An institution-based cross-sectional study was conducted in February and March 2014 on 456 randomly selected adolescents from 20 high schools in Addis Ababa city.  Demographic data and other risk factors of overweight and obesity were collected using self-administered structured questionnaire, whereas anthropometric measurements of weight and height were taken using calibrated equipment and standardized techniques. The WHO STEPS instrument for chronic disease risk was applied to assess dietary habit and physical activity. Overweight and obesity status was determined based on BMI-for-age percentiles of WHO 2007 reference population. Results: The prevalence rates of overweight, obesity, and overall overweight/ obesity among high school adolescents in Addis Ababa were 9.7% (95%CI = 6.9-12.4%), 4.2% (95%CI = 2.3-6.0%), and 13.9% (95%CI = 10.6-17.1%), respectively. Overweight/obesity prevalence was highest among female adolescents, in private schools, and in the higher wealth category. In multivariable regression model, being female [AOR(95%CI) = 5.4(2.5,12.1)], being from private school [AOR(95%CI) = 3.0(1.4,6.2)], having >3 regular meals [AOR(95%CI) = 4.0(1.3,13.0)], consumption of sweet foods [AOR(95%CI) = 5.0(2.4,10.3)] and spending >3 hours/day sitting [AOR(95%CI) = 3.5(1.7,7.2)] were found to increase overweight/ obesity risk, whereas high Total Physical Activity level [AOR(95%CI) = 0.21(0.08,0.57)] and better nutrition knowledge [AOR(95%CI) = 0.160.07,0.37)] were found protective. Conclusions: More than one in ten of the high school adolescents were affected by overweight/obesity with dietary habit and physical activity are important modifiable risk factors. Well-tailored nutrition education program targeting lifestyle change should be initiated with more emphasis to female adolescents and students in private schools.

Keywords: Obesity, Overweight, Adolescents, NCDs

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