F. Ahmed

Publications

2 Comparison of Automated Zone Design Census Output Areas with Existing Output Areas in South Africa

Authors: F. Ahmed, T. Mokhele, O. Mutanga

Abstract:

South Africa is one of the few countries that have stopped using the same Enumeration Areas (EAs) for census enumeration and dissemination. The advantage of this change is that confidentiality issue could be addressed for census dissemination as the design of geographic unit for collection is mainly to ensure that this unit is covered by one enumerator. The objective of this paper was to evaluate the performance of automated zone design output areas against non-zone design developed geographies using the 2001 census data, and 2011 census to some extent, as the main input. The comparison of the Automated Zone-design Tool (AZTool) census output areas with the Small Area Layers (SALs) and SubPlaces based on confidentiality limit, population distribution, and degree of homogeneity, as well as shape compactness, was undertaken. Further, SPSS was employed for validation of the AZTool output results. The results showed that AZTool developed output areas out-perform the existing official SAL and SubPlaces with regard to minimum population threshold, population distribution and to some extent to homogeneity. Therefore, it was concluded that AZTool program provides a new alternative to the creation of optimised census output areas for dissemination of population census data in South Africa.

Keywords: South Africa, AZTool, enumeration areas, small areal layers

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 353
1 Design and Fabrication of Stent with Negative Poisson’s Ratio

Authors: S. K. Bhullar, J. Ko, F. Ahmed, M. B. G. Jun

Abstract:

The negative Poisson’s ratios can be described in terms of models based on the geometry of the system and the way this geometry changes due to applied loads. As the Poisson’s ratio does not depend on scale hence deformation can take place at the nano to macro level the only requirement is the right combination of the geometry. Our thrust in this paper is to combine our knowledge of tailored enhanced mechanical properties of the materials having negative Poisson’s ratio with the micromachining and electrospining technology to develop a novel stent carrying a drug delivery system. Therefore, the objective of this paper includes (i) fabrication of a micromachined metal sheet tailored with structure having negative Poisson’s ratio through rotating solid squares geometry using femtosecond laser ablation; (ii) rolling fabricated structure and welding to make a tubular structure (iii) wrapping it with nanofibers of biocompatible polymer PCL (polycaprolactone) for drug delivery (iv) analysis of the functional and mechanical performance of fabricated structure analytically and experimentally. Further, as the applications concerned, tubular structures have potential in biomedical for example hollow tubes called stents are placed inside to provide mechanical support to a damaged artery or diseased region and to open a blocked esophagus thus allowing feeding capacity and improving quality of life.

Keywords: micromachining, Auxetic Materials, enhanced mechanical properties, electrospining

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2578

Abstracts

2 Comparison of Automated Zone Design Census Output Areas with Existing Output Areas in South Africa

Authors: F. Ahmed, T. Mokhele, O. Mutanga

Abstract:

South Africa is one of the few countries that have stopped using the same Enumeration Areas (EAs) for census enumeration and dissemination. The advantage of this change is that confidentiality issue could be addressed for census dissemination as the design of geographic unit for collection is mainly to ensure that this unit is covered by one enumerator. The objective of this paper was to evaluate the performance of automated zone design output areas against non-zone design developed geographies using the 2001 census data, and 2011 census to some extent, as the main input. The comparison of the Automated Zone-design Tool (AZTool) census output areas with the Small Area Layers (SALs) and SubPlaces based on confidentiality limit, population distribution, and degree of homogeneity, as well as shape compactness, was undertaken. Further, SPSS was employed for validation of the AZTool output results. The results showed that AZTool developed output areas out-perform the existing official SAL and SubPlaces with regard to minimum population threshold, population distribution and to some extent to homogeneity. Therefore, it was concluded that AZTool program provides a new alternative to the creation of optimised census output areas for dissemination of population census data in South Africa.

Keywords: South Africa, AZTool, enumeration areas, small areal layers

Procedia PDF Downloads 60
1 The Effect of Corruption and Taxes on Entrepreneurship Activity: Across Country Study

Authors: F. Ahmed, Y. Dawood

Abstract:

One of the vehement debates nowadays is about the effect of taxation and economic growth. From one side, taxes are an essential factor to absorb the unemployment, improve the stander of living and achieve a high level of economic growth. On the other hand, they consider it as the main reason to lose the growth ground. The primary goal of the present study is to provide a cross-country evidence of the relationship between taxes and entrepreneurship. There are several important areas where this study makes an original contribution to Entrepreneurship literature. Our paper will use a combination of macro and micro data to present more accurate evidence of the relation. Our study considers large cross sections of countries for the period from 2008 to 2014 for 59 countries. In addition to that and most importantly, our study examines the effect of corruption on the relation between taxes and Entrepreneurship as the corruption is a very important dimension that can explain international entrepreneurship. The importance of this study can be seen from several perspectives: By investigating the taxes effect on entrepreneurship motivation, it is important for the policy makers as well as scholars. Governments and regulators who consider changing in the entrepreneurship sector as an important determinant of economic growth can benefit also from this research. Also, countries who are considering improving their growth level. Scholars also can get insights from this research to gain insights regarding the validity of the Environmental Determinism the institutional theory in the entrepreneurship contest. In addition, it also highlights the obstacles of corruption in developing countries.

Keywords: Entrepreneurship, Corruption, Taxes, across countries

Procedia PDF Downloads 170