Ahmad Abdi

Publications

1 The Effect of Four-Week Resistance Exercise along with Milk Consumption on NT-proBNP and Plasma Troponin I

Authors: Rostam Abdi, Ahmad Abdi, Zahra Vahedi Langrodi

Abstract:

The aim of this study is to investigate four-week resistance exercise and milk supplement on NT-proBNP and plasma troponin I of male students. Concerning the methodology of the study, 21 senior high school students of Ardebil city were selected. The selected subjects were randomly shared in three groups of control, exercise- water and exercise- milk. The exercise program includes resistance exercise for a big muscle group. The subjects of control group rested during the study and did not participate in any training. The subjects of exercise- water experimental group immediately received 400 cc water after exercise and exercise- milk group immediately received 400 cc low fat milk. Control-water groups consumed the same amount of water. 48 hours before and after the last exercise session, the blood sample of the subjects were taken for measuring the variables. NT-proBNP and Troponin I concentrations were measured by ELISA. For data analysis, one-way variance analysis test, correlated t-test and Bonferroni post hoc test were used. The significant difference of p ≤ 0.05 was accepted. Resistance training along with milk consumption leads to increase of plasma NT-proBNP, however; this increase has not reached the significant level. Furthermore, meaningful increase was observed in plasma NT–proBNP in exercise group between pretest and posttest values. Furthermore, no meaningful difference was observed between groups in terms of Troponin I after milk consumption. It seems that endurance exercises lead to change in the structure of heart muscle and is along with an increase of NT-proBNP. Furthermore, there is the possibility that milk consumption can lead to release of heart troponin I. The mechanism through which protein supplements have been put on heart troponin I is unknown and requires more research.

Keywords: Milk, NT-proBNP, resistance exercise, troponin I

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Abstracts

10 Effect of Post Circuit Resistance Exercise Glucose Feeding on Energy and Hormonal Indexes in Plasma and Lymphocyte in Free-Style Wrestlers

Authors: Ahmad Abdi, Saeid Fazelifar, Miesam Golzadeh Gangraj, Younes Parvasi, Mohammad Ghasemi

Abstract:

The purpose of the study was to determine the effect of glucose feeding on energy and hormonal indexes in plasma and lymphocyte immediately after wrestling – base techniques circuit exercise (WBTCE) in young male freestyle wrestlers. Sixteen wrestlers (weight = 75/45 ± 12/92 kg, age = 22/29 ± 0/90 years, BMI = 26/23 ± 2/64 kg/m²) were randomly divided into two groups: control (water), glucose (2 gr per kg body weight). Blood samples were obtained before, immediately, and 90 minutes of the post-exercise recovery period. Glucose (2 g/kg of body weight, 1W/5V) and water (equal volumes) solutions were given immediately after the second blood sampling. Data were analyzed by using an ANOVA (a repeated measure) and a suitable post hoc test (LSD). A significant decrease was observed in lymphocytes glycogen immediately after exercise (P < 0.001). In the experimental group, increase Lymphocyte glycogen concentration (P < 0.028) than in the control group in 90 min post-exercise. Plasma glucose concentrations increased in all groups immediately after exercise (P < 0.05). Plasma insulin concentrations in both groups decreased immediately after exercise, but at 90 min after exercise, its level was significantly increased only in glucose group (P < 0.001). Our results suggested that WBTCE protocol could be affected cellular energy sources and hormonal response. Furthermore, Glucose consumption can increase the lymphocyte glycogen and better energy within the cell.

Keywords: Exercise, lymphocyte, glucose feeding, Wrestling – base techniques circuit

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9 The Effect of Four-Week Resistance Exercise along with Milk Consumption on NT-proBNP and Plasma Troponin I

Authors: Rostam Abdi, Ahmad Abdi, Zahra Vahedi Langrodi

Abstract:

The aim of this study is to investigate four-week resistance exercise and milk supplement on NT-proBNP and plasma troponin I of male students. Concerning the methodology of the study, 21 senior high school students of Ardebil city were selected. The selected subjects were randomly shared in three groups of control, exercise- water and exercise- milk. The exercise program includes resistance exercise for a big muscle group. The subjects of control group rested during the study and did not participate in any training. The subjects of exercise- water experimental group immediately received 400 cc water after exercise and exercise- milk group immediately received 400 cc low fat milk. Control-water groups consumed the same amount of water. 48 hours before and after the last exercise session, the blood sample of the subjects were taken for measuring the variables. NT-proBNP and Troponin I concentrations were measured by ELISA. For data analysis, one-way variance analysis test, correlated t-test and Bonferroni post hoc test were used. The significant difference of p ≤ 0.05 was accepted. Resistance training along with milk consumption leads to increase of plasma NT-proBNP, however; this increase has not reached the significant level. Furthermore, meaningful increase was observed in plasma NT–proBNP in exercise group between pretest and posttest values. Furthermore, no meaningful difference was observed between groups in terms of Troponin I after milk consumption. It seems that endurance exercises lead to change in the structure of heart muscle and is along with an increase of NT-proBNP. Furthermore, there is the possibility that milk consumption can lead to release of heart troponin I. The mechanism through which protein supplements have been put on heart troponin I is unknown and requires more research.

Keywords: Milk, NT-proBNP, resistance exercise, troponin I

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8 Effect of Saffron Extract and Aerobic Exercises on Troponin T and Heart-Type Fatty Acid Binding Protein in Men with Type 2 Diabetes

Authors: S. Amini, Alireza Barari, Ahmad Abdi, M. Golzadeh Gangeraj, S. Shirali

Abstract:

Aims: Diabetes is one of the common metabolic diseases in the world that has the dire adverse effects such as nephropathy, retinopathy and cardiovascular problems. Pharmaceutical and non-pharmaceutical strategies for control and treatment of diabetes are provided. Exercise and nutrition as non-drug strategies for the prevention and control of diabetes are considered. Exercises may increase oxidative stress and myocardium injury, thus it is necessary to take nutrition strategies to help diabetic athletes. Methods: This study was a semi-experimental research. Therefore, 24 men with type 2 diabetes were selected and randomly divided in four groups (1. control, 2. saffron extract, 3. aerobic exercises, 4. compound aerobic exercises and saffron extract). Saffron extract with 100 mg/day was used. Aerobic exercises, three days a week, for eight weeks, with 55-70% of maximum heart rate were performed. At the end, levels of Heart-type fatty acid-binding protein (HFABP) and Troponin T were measured. Data were analyzed by Paired t, One-way ANOVA and Tukey tests. Results: The serum Troponin T increased significantly in saffron extract, aerobic exercises and compound saffron extract -aerobic exercises in type 2 diabetic men(P=0.024, P =0.013, P=0.005 respectively). Saffron extract consumption (100 mg/day) and aerobic exercises did not significantly influence the serum HFABP (P =0.365, P =0.188 respectively). But serum HFABP decreased significantly in compound saffron extract -aerobic exercises group (P =0.003). Conclusions: Raised cardiac Troponin T and HFABP concentration accepted as the standard biochemical markers for the diagnosis of cardiac injury. Saffron intake may beneficially protect the myocardium from injuries. Compound saffron extract -aerobic exercises can decrease levels of Troponin T and HFABP in men with type 2 diabetes.

Keywords: Type 2 diabetes, saffron, aerobic exercises, HFABP, troponin T

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7 The Effects of Six Weeks Endurance Training and Aloe Vera on COX-2 and VEGF Levels in Mice with Breast Cancer

Authors: Alireza Barari, Ahmad Abdi

Abstract:

The aim of this study was to determine the effects of the effects of six weeks endurance training and Aloe Vera on cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) and VEGF levels in mice with breast cancer. For this purpose, 35 rats were randomly divided into 5 groups: control (healthy), control (cancer), training (cancer), Aloe Vera (cancer) and Aloe Vera + training (cancer). Induction of breast cancer tumors were done in mice by planting method. The training program includes six weeks of swimming training was done in three sessions per week. Training time from 10 minutes on the first day increased to 60 minutes in second week, and by stabilizing this time, the water flow rate was increased from 7 to 15 liters per minute. 300 mg per kg body weight of Aloe Vera extract was injected into the peritoneal. Sampling was done 48 hours after the last exercise session. K-S test to determine the normality of the data and analysis of variance for repeated measures and Tukey test was used to analyze the data. A significant difference in the p<0.05 accepted. The results showed that induction of cancer cells significantly increased levels of COX-2 in aloe group and VEGF in training and Aloe Vera + training groups. The results suggest that swimming exercise and Aloe Vera can reduce levels of COX-2 and VEGF in mice with breast cancer.The results of this study, Induction of cancer cells significantly increased levels of COX-2 and MMP-9 in the control group compared with the cancer control group. The results suggest that Aloe Vera can probably inhibit the cyclooxygenase pathway and thus production of prostaglandin E2 decrease of arachidonic acid.

Keywords: Endurance Training, VEGF, Aloe vera, COX-2

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6 Glutamine Supplementation and Resistance Traning on Anthropometric Indices, Immunoglobulins, and Cortisol Levels

Authors: Saeed Shirali, Alireza Barari, Ahmad Abdi

Abstract:

Introduction: Exercise has contradictory effects on the immune system. Glutamine supplementation may increase the resistance of the immune system in athletes. The Glutamine is one of the most recognized immune nutrients that as a fuel source, substrate in the synthesis of nucleotides and amino acids and is also known to be part of the antioxidant defense. Several studies have shown that improving glutamine levels in plasma and tissues can have beneficial effects on the function of immune cells such as lymphocytes and neutrophils. This study aimed to investigate the effects of resistance training and training combined with glutamine supplementation to improve the levels of cortisol and immunoglobulin in untrained young men. The research shows that physical training can increase the cytokines in the athlete’s body of course; glutamine can counteract the negative effects of resistance training on immune function and stability of the mast cell membrane. Materials and methods: This semi-experimental study was conducted on 30 male non-athletes. They were randomly divided into three groups: control (no exercise), resistance training, resistance training and glutamine supplementation, respectively. Resistance training for 4 weeks and glutamine supplementation in 0.3 gr/kg/day after practice was applied. The resistance-training program consisted of eight exercises (leg press, lat pull, chest press, squat, seatedrow, abdominal crunch, shoulder press, biceps curl and triceps press down) four times per week. Participants performed 3 sets of 10 repetitions at 60–75% 1-RM. Anthropometry indexes (weight, body mass index, and body fat percentage), oxygen uptake (VO2max) Maximal, cortisol levels of immunoglobulins (IgA, IgG, IgM) were evaluated Pre- and post-test. Results: Results showed four week resistance training with and without glutamine cause significant increase in body weight, BMI and significantly decreased (P < 0/001) in BF. Vo2max also increased in both groups of exercise (P < 0/05) and exercise with glutamine (P < 0/001), such as in both groups significant reduction in IgG (P < 0/05) was observed. But no significant difference observed in levels of cortisol, IgA, IgM in any of the groups. No significant change observed in either parameter in the control group. No significant difference observed between the groups. Discussion: The alterations in the hormonal and immunological parameters can be used in order to assess the effect overload on the body, whether acute or chronically. The plasmatic concentration of glutamine has been associated to the functionality of the immunological system in individuals sub-mitted to intense physical training. resistance training has destructive effects on the immune system and glutamine supplementation cannot neutralize the damaging effects of power exercise on the immune system.

Keywords: cortisol, glutamine, resistance traning, immuglobulins

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5 Mistletoe Supplementation and Exercise Training on IL-1β and TNF-α Levels

Authors: Alireza Barari, Ahmad Abdi

Abstract:

Introduction: Plyometric training (PT) is popular among individuals involved in dynamic sports, and is executed with a goal to improve muscular performance. Cytokines are considered as immunoregulatory molecules for regulation of immune function and other body responses. In addition, the pro-inflammatory cytokines, TNF-α andIL-1β, have been reported to be increased during and after exercises. If some of the cytokines which cause responses such as inflammation of cells in skeletal muscles, with manipulating of training program or optimizing nutrition, it can be avoided or limited from those injuries caused by cytokines release. Its shows that mistletoe extracts show immune-modulating effects. Materials and methods: present study was to investigate the effect of six weeks PT with or without mistletoe supplementation (MS)(10 mg/kg) on cytokine responses and performance in male basketball players. This study is semi-experimental. Statistic society of this study was basketball player’s male students of Mahmoud Abad city. Statistic samples are concluded of 32 basketball players with an age range of 14–17 years was selected from randomly. Selection of samples in four groups of 8 individuals Participants were randomly assigned to either an experimental group (E, n=16) that performed plyometric exercises with (n=8) or without (n=8) MS, or a control group that rested (C, n=16) with (n=8) or without (n=8) MS. Plants were collected in June from the Mazandaran forest in north of Iran. Then they dried in exposure to air without any exposition to sunlight, on a clean textile. For better drying the plants were high and down until they lost their water. Each subject consumed 10 mg/kg/day of extract for six weeks of intervention. Pre and post-testing was performed in the afternoon of the same day. Blood samples (10 ml) were collected from the intermediate cubital vein of the subjects. Serum concentration of IL-1β and TNF-α were measured by ELISA method. Data analysis was performed using pretest to posttest changes that assessed by t-test for paired samples. After the last plyometric training program, the second blood samples were in the next day. Group differences at baseline were evaluated using One-way ANOVA (post-hock Tukey) test is used for analysis and comparison of three group’s variables. Results: PT with or without MS improved the one repetition maximum leg and chest press, Sargeant test and power in RAST (P < 0.05). However there were no statistically significant differences between groups in Vo2max measures (P > 0.05). PT resulted in a significant increase in plasma IL-1β concentration from 1.08±0.4 mg/ml in pre-training to 1.68±0.18 mg/ml in post-training (P=0.006). While the MS significantly decreased the training-induced increment of IL-1β (P=0.007). In contrast, neither PT nor MS had any effect on TNF-α levels (P > 0.05). Discussion: The results of this investigation indicate that PT improved muscular performance and increases the IL-1β concentration. Increasing of IL-1β after exercise in damaged skeletal muscle has shown of the role of this cytokine in inflammation processes and damaged skeletal muscle repair. However mistletoe supplementation ameliorates the increment of IL-1β levels, indicating the beneficial effect of mistletoe on immune response following plyometric training.

Keywords: training, IL-1β, mistletoe supplementation, TNF-α

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4 The Effect of 8 Weeks Endurance Training and L-NAME on Apelin in Adipose Tissue, Glucose and Insulin in Elderly Male's Rats

Authors: Ahmad Abdi, Asieh Abbassi Daloii, Fatemeh Fani

Abstract:

Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the effect of 8 weeks endurance training and L-NAME on apelin in adipose tissue, glucose and insulin in elderly male’s rats. Methods: For this purpose, 24 vistar elderly rats with average 20 months old purchased from Razi Institute and transferred to Research Center were randomly divided into four groups: 1. control, 2. training, 3.training and L-NAME and 4. L-NAME. Training protocol performed for 8 weeks and 5 days a week with 75-80 VO2 max. All rats were killed 72 hours after the final training session and after 24 hours of fasting adipose tissue samples were collected and kept in -80. Also, Data was analyzed with One way ANOVA and Tucky in p < 0/05. Results: The results showed that the inhibition of nitric oxide on apelin in adipose tissue of adult male rats after eight weeks of endurance training increased significantly compared to the control group (p < 0.00). Also, the results showed no significant difference between the levels of insulin and glucose groups. Conclusion: It is likely that the increased apelin in adipose tissue in mice independent of insulin and glucose.

Keywords: Endurance Training, L-NAME, apelin in adipose tissue, elderly male rats

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3 The Effect of Aerobic Training and Aqueous Extract of C. monogyna (Hawthorn) on Plasma and Heart Angiogenic Mediators in Male Wistar Rats

Authors: Ahmad Abdi, Asieh Abbassi Daloii

Abstract:

Introduction: Sports information suggests that physical inactivity increases the risk of many diseases, including atherosclerosis. Coronary heart disease, stroke and peripheral vascular disease, atherosclerosis and clinical protests. However, exercise can have beneficial effects on risk factors for atherosclerosis by reducing hyperlipidemia, hypertension, obesity, plaque density, increased insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance is improved. Despite these findings, there is little information about the molecular mechanisms of interaction between the body and its relation to sport and there arteriosclerosis. The present study aims to investigate the effect of six weeks of progressive aerobic training and aqueous extract of crataegus monogyna on vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) variations and angiopoetin-1/2 (ANG- 1/2) in plasma and heart tissue in male Wistar rats. Methods: 30 male Wistar rats, 4-6 months old, were randomly divided into four groups: control crataegus monogyna (N=8), training crataegus monogyna (N=8), control saline (N=6), and training saline (N=8). The aerobic training program included running on treadmill at the speed of 34 meters per minute for 60 minutes per day. The training was conducted for six weeks, five days a week. Following each training session, both experimental and control subjects of crataegus monogyna groups were orally fed with 0.5 mg crataegus monogyna extract per gram of the body weight. The normal saline group was given the same amount of the normal saline solution (NS). Eventually, 72 hours after the last training session, blood samples were taken from inferior Verna cava. Conclusion: It is likely that crataegus monogyna extract compared with aerobic training and even combination of both training and crataegus monogyna extract is more effective on angiogenesis.

Keywords: Aerobic Exercise, vascular endothelial growth factor, angiopoietin 1

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2 Resistance Training and Ginger Consumption on Cytokines Levels

Authors: Alireza Barari, Ahmad Abdi

Abstract:

Regular body trainings cause adaption in various system in body. One of the important effect of body training is its effect on immune system. It seems that cytokines usually release after long period exercises or some exercises which cause skeletal muscular damages. If some of the cytokines which cause responses such as inflammation of cells in skeletal muscles, with manipulating of training program, it can be avoided or limited from those exercises which induct cytokines release. Ginger plant is a kind of medicinal plants which is known as a anti inflammation plant. This plant is as most precedence medicinal plants in medicine science especially in inflammation cure. The aim of the present study was the effect of selected resistance training and consumption of ginger extract on IL-1α and TNFα untrained young women. The population includes young women interested in participating in the study with the average of 30±2 years old from Abbas Abad city among which 32 participants were chosen randomly and divided into 4 four groups, resistance training (R), resistance training and ginger consumption(RG), Ginger consumption(G)and Control group(C). The training groups performed circuit resistance training at the intensity of 65-75% one repeat maximum, 3 days a week for 6 weeks. Besides resistance training, subjects were given either ginseng (5 mg/kg per day) or placebo. Prior to and 48 hours after interventions body composition was measured and blood samples were taken in order to assess serum levels of IL-1α and TNFα. Plasma levels of cytokines were measured with commercially available ELISA Kits.IL-1α kit and TNFα kit were used in this research. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the independent variable and the comparison between groups, t-test and ANOVA were used. To determine differences between the groups, the Scheffe test was used that showed significant changes in any of the variables. we observed that circuit resistance training in R and RG groups can significant decreased in weight and body mass index in untrained females (p<0.05). The results showed a significant decreased in the mean level of IL-1α levels before and after the training period in G group (p=0.046) and RG group (p=0.022). Comparison between groups also showed there was significant difference between groups R-RG and RG-C. Intergroup comparison results showed that the mean levels of TNFα before and after the training in group G (p=0.044) and RG (p=0.037), significantly decreased. Comparison between groups also showed there was significant difference between groups R–RG , R-G ,RG-C and G-C. The research shows that circuit resistance training with reducing overload method results in systemic inflammation had significant effect on IL-1α levels and TNFα. Of course, Ginger can counteract the negative effects of resistance training exercise on immune function and stability of the mast cell membrane. Considerable evidence supported the anti-inflammatory properties of ginger for several constituents, especially gingerols, shogaols, paradols, and zingerones, through decreased cytokine gene TNF α and IL-1Α expression and inhibition of cyclooxygenase 1 and 2. These established biological actions suggest that ingested ginger could block the increase in IL-1α.

Keywords: Resistance Training, ginger, IL-1α, TNFα

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1 Effect of Resistance Exercise on Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Gonadal Axis

Authors: Saeed Shirali, Alireza Barari, Ahmad Abdi

Abstract:

Abstract: Introduction: Physical activity may be related to male reproductive function by affecting on thehypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal(HPG) axis. Our aim was to determine the effects of 6 weeks resistance exercise on reproductive hormones, HPG axis. The hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis refers tothe effects of endocrine glands in three-level including (i) the hypothalamic releasing hormone GnRH, which is synthesized in in a small heterogenous neuronal population and released in a pulsatile fashion, (ii) the anterior pituitary hormones, follicle-stimulating hormone(FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) and (iii) the gonadal hormones, which include both steroid such as testosterone (T), estradiol and progesterone and peptide hormones (such as inhibin). Hormonal changes that create a more anabolic environment have been suggested to contribute to the adaptation to strength exercise. Physical activity has an extensive impact on male reproductive function depending upon the intensity and duration of the exercise and the fitness level of the individual. However, strenuous exercise represents a physical stress and inflammation changed that challenges homeostasis. Materials and methods: Sixteen male volunteered were included in a 6-week control period followed by 6 weeks of resistance training (leg press, lat pull, chest press, squat, seatedrow, abdominal crunch, shoulder press, biceps curl and triceps press down) four times per week. intensity of training loading was 60%-75% of one maximum repetition. Participants performed 3 sets of 10 repetitions. Rest periods were two min between exercises and sets. Start with warm up exercises include: The muscles relax and stretch the body, which was for 10 minutes. Body composition, VO2max and the circulating level of free testosterone (fT), luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) and inhibin B measured prior and post 6-week intervention. The hormonal levels of each serum sample were measured using commercially available ELISA kits. Analysis of anthropometrical data and hormonal level were compared using the independent samples t- test in both groups and using SPSS (version 19). P ≤ 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: For muscle strength, both lower- and upper-body strength were increased significantly. Aerobic fitness level improved in trained participant from 39.4 ± 5.6 to 41.9 ± 5.3 (P = 0.002). fT concentration rise progressively in the trained group and was significantly greater than those in the control group (P = 0.000). By the end of the 6-week resistance training, serum SHBG significantly increased in the trained group compared with the control group (P = 0.013). In response to resistance training, LH, FSH and inhibin B were not significantly changed. Discussion: According to our finfings, 6 weeks of resistance training induce fat loss without any changes in body weight and BMI. A decline of 25.3% in percentage of body fat with statiscally same weight was due to increase in muscle mass that happened during resistance exercise periods . Six weeks of resistance training resulted in significant improvement in BF%, VO2max and increasing strength and the level of fT and SHBG.

Keywords: Resistance, hypothalamic, pituitary, gonadal axis

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