Bo Liu

Publications

2 Labview-Based System for Fiber Links Events Detection

Authors: Bo Liu, Weiqing Huang, Qingshan Kong

Abstract:

With the rapid development of modern communication, diagnosing the fiber-optic quality and faults in real-time is widely focused. In this paper, a Labview-based system is proposed for fiber-optic faults detection. The wavelet threshold denoising method combined with Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD) is applied to denoise the optical time domain reflectometer (OTDR) signal. Then the method based on Gabor representation is used to detect events. Experimental measurements show that signal to noise ratio (SNR) of the OTDR signal is improved by 1.34dB on average, compared with using the wavelet threshold denosing method. The proposed system has a high score in event detection capability and accuracy. The maximum detectable fiber length of the proposed Labview-based system can be 65km.

Keywords: empirical mode decomposition (EMD), Gabor transform, wavelet threshold denoising, events detection, optical time domain reflectometer (OTDR)

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1 Dynamics of the Moving Ship at Complex and Sudden Impact of External Forces

Authors: Bo Liu, Liangtian Gao, Idrees Qasim

Abstract:

The impact of the storm leads to accidents even in the case of vessels that meet the computed safety criteria for stability. That is why, in order to clarify the causes of the accident and shipwreck, it is necessary to study the dynamics of the ship under the complex sudden impact of external forces. The task is to determine the movement and landing of the ship in the complex and sudden impact of external forces, i.e. when the ship's load changes over a relatively short period of time. For the solution, a technique was used to study the ship's dynamics, which is based on the compilation of a system of differential equations of motion. A coordinate system was adopted for the equation of motion of the hull and the determination of external forces. As a numerical method of integration, the 4th order Runge-Kutta method was chosen. The results of the calculation show that dynamic deviations were lower for high-altitude vessels. The study of the movement of the hull under a difficult situation is performed: receiving of cargo, impact of a flurry of wind and subsequent displacement of the cargo. The risk of overturning and flooding was assessed.

Keywords: Dynamics, Statics, dynamic load, trim, roll, vertical displacement, tilt

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Abstracts

5 Labview-Based System for Fiber Links Events Detection

Authors: Bo Liu, Weiqing Huang, Qingshan Kong

Abstract:

With the rapid development of modern communication, diagnosing the fiber-optic quality and faults in real-time is widely focused. In this paper, a Labview-based system is proposed for fiber-optic faults detection. The wavelet threshold denoising method combined with Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD) is applied to denoise the optical time domain reflectometer (OTDR) signal. Then the method based on Gabor representation is used to detect events. Experimental measurements show that signal to noise ratio (SNR) of the OTDR signal is improved by 1.34dB on average, compared with using the wavelet threshold denosing method. The proposed system has a high score in event detection capability and accuracy. The maximum detectable fiber length of the proposed Labview-based system can be 65km.

Keywords: empirical mode decomposition, optical time domain reflectometer, events detection, Gabor transform, wavelet threshold denoising

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4 Dynamics of the Moving Ship at Complex and Sudden Impact of External Forces

Authors: Bo Liu, Liangtian Gao, Idrees Qasim

Abstract:

The impact of the storm leads to accidents even in the case of vessels that meet the computed safety criteria for stability. That is why, in order to clarify the causes of the accident and shipwreck, it is necessary to study the dynamics of the ship under the complex sudden impact of external forces. The task is to determine the movement and landing of the ship in the complex and sudden impact of external forces, i.e. when the ship's load changes over a relatively short period of time. For the solution, a technique was used to study the ship's dynamics, which is based on the compilation of a system of differential equations of motion. A coordinate system was adopted for the equation of motion of the hull and the determination of external forces. As a numerical method of integration, the 4th order Runge-Kutta method was chosen. The results of the calculation show that dynamic deviations were lower for high-altitude vessels. The study of the movement of the hull under a difficult situation is performed: receiving of cargo, impact of a flurry of wind and subsequent displacement of the cargo. The risk of overturning and flooding was assessed.

Keywords: Dynamics, Statics, dynamic load, trim, roll, vertical displacement, tilt

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3 Improving the Efficiency of a High Pressure Turbine by Using Non-Axisymmetric Endwall: A Comparison of Two Optimization Algorithms

Authors: Bo Liu, Abdul Rehman

Abstract:

Axial flow turbines are commonly designed with high loads that generate strong secondary flows and result in high secondary losses. These losses contribute to almost 30% to 50% of the total losses. Non-axisymmetric endwall profiling is one of the passive control technique to reduce the secondary flow loss. In this paper, the non-axisymmetric endwall profile construction and optimization for the stator endwalls are presented to improve the efficiency of a high pressure turbine. The commercial code NUMECA Fine/ Design3D coupled with Fine/Turbo was used for the numerical investigation, design of experiments and the optimization. All the flow simulations were conducted by using steady RANS and Spalart-Allmaras as a turbulence model. The non-axisymmetric endwalls of stator hub and shroud were created by using the perturbation law based on Bezier Curves. Each cut having multiple control points was supposed to be created along the virtual streamlines in the blade channel. For the design of experiments, each sample was arbitrarily generated based on values automatically chosen for the control points defined during parameterization. The Optimization was achieved by using two algorithms i.e. the stochastic algorithm and gradient-based algorithm. For the stochastic algorithm, a genetic algorithm based on the artificial neural network was used as an optimization method in order to achieve the global optimum. The evaluation of the successive design iterations was performed using artificial neural network prior to the flow solver. For the second case, the conjugate gradient algorithm with a three dimensional CFD flow solver was used to systematically vary a free-form parameterization of the endwall. This method is efficient and less time to consume as it requires derivative information of the objective function. The objective function was to maximize the isentropic efficiency of the turbine by keeping the mass flow rate as constant. The performance was quantified by using a multi-objective function. Other than these two classifications of the optimization methods, there were four optimizations cases i.e. the hub only, the shroud only, and the combination of hub and shroud. For the fourth case, the shroud endwall was optimized by using the optimized hub endwall geometry. The hub optimization resulted in an increase in the efficiency due to more homogenous inlet conditions for the rotor. The adverse pressure gradient was reduced but the total pressure loss in the vicinity of the hub was increased. The shroud optimization resulted in an increase in efficiency, total pressure loss and entropy were reduced. The combination of hub and shroud did not show overwhelming results which were achieved for the individual cases of the hub and the shroud. This may be caused by fact that there were too many control variables. The fourth case of optimization showed the best result because optimized hub was used as an initial geometry to optimize the shroud. The efficiency was increased more than the individual cases of optimization with a mass flow rate equal to the baseline design of the turbine. The results of artificial neural network and conjugate gradient method were compared.

Keywords: Optimization, Artificial Neural Network, conjugate gradient method, axial turbine, non-axisymmetric endwall

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2 Luminescent Properties of Plastic Scintillator with Large Area Photonic Crystal Prepared by a Combination of Nanoimprint Lithography and Atomic Layer Deposition

Authors: Liang Chen, Bo Liu, Xiaoping Ouyang, Shiyi He, Zhongbing Zhang, Jinlu Ruan, Zhichao Zhu, Mengxuan Xu

Abstract:

Plastic scintillators play an important role in the measurement of a mixed neutron/gamma pulsed radiation, neutron radiography and pulse shape discrimination technology. In some research, these luminescent properties are necessary that photons produced by the interactions between a plastic scintillator and radiations can be detected as much as possible by the photoelectric detectors and more photons can be emitted from the scintillators along a specific direction where detectors are located. Unfortunately, a majority of these photons produced are trapped in the plastic scintillators due to the total internal reflection (TIR), because there is a significant light-trapping effect when the incident angle of internal scintillation light is larger than the critical angle. Some of these photons trapped in the scintillator may be absorbed by the scintillator itself and the others are emitted from the edges of the scintillator. This makes the light extraction of plastic scintillators very low. Moreover, only a small portion of the photons emitted from the scintillator easily can be detected by detectors effectively, because the distribution of the emission directions of this portion of photons exhibits approximate Lambertian angular profile following a cosine emission law. Therefore, enhancing the light extraction efficiency and adjusting the emission angular profile become the keys for improving the number of photons detected by the detectors. In recent years, photonic crystal structures have been covered on inorganic scintillators to enhance the light extraction efficiency and adjust the angular profile of scintillation light successfully. However, that, preparation methods of photonic crystals will deteriorate performance of plastic scintillators and even destroy the plastic scintillators, makes the investigation on preparation methods of photonic crystals for plastic scintillators and luminescent properties of plastic scintillators with photonic crystal structures inadequate. Although we have successfully made photonic crystal structures covered on the surface of plastic scintillators by a modified self-assembly technique and achieved a great enhance of light extraction efficiency without evident angular-dependence for the angular profile of scintillation light, the preparation of photonic crystal structures with large area (the diameter is larger than 6cm) and perfect periodic structure is still difficult. In this paper, large area photonic crystals on the surface of scintillators were prepared by nanoimprint lithography firstly, and then a conformal layer with material of high refractive index on the surface of photonic crystal by atomic layer deposition technique in order to enhance the stability of photonic crystal structures and increase the number of leaky modes for improving the light extraction efficiency. The luminescent properties of the plastic scintillator with photonic crystals prepared by the mentioned method are compared with those of the plastic scintillator without photonic crystal. The results indicate that the number of photons detected by detectors is increased by the enhanced light extraction efficiency and the angular profile of scintillation light exhibits evident angular-dependence for the scintillator with photonic crystals. The mentioned preparation of photonic crystals is beneficial to scintillation detection applications and lays an important technique foundation for the plastic scintillators to meet special requirements under different application backgrounds.

Keywords: photonic crystal, atomic layer deposition, angular profile, light extraction efficiency, plastic scintillator

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1 Digital Forgery Detection by Signal Noise Inconsistency

Authors: Bo Liu, Chi-Man Pun

Abstract:

A novel technique for digital forgery detection by signal noise inconsistency is proposed in this paper. The forged area spliced from the other picture contains some features which may be inconsistent with the rest part of the image. Noise pattern and the level is a possible factor to reveal such inconsistency. To detect such noise discrepancies, the test picture is initially segmented into small pieces. The noise pattern and level of each segment are then estimated by using various filters. The noise features constructed in this step are utilized in energy-based graph cut to expose forged area in the final step. Experimental results show that our method provides a good illustration of regions with noise inconsistency in various scenarios.

Keywords: Noise, forgery detection, splicing forgery, noise estimation

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