Abdullah M. Alzahrani

Abstracts

4 Karyotyping the Date Palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.)

Authors: Abdullah M. Alzahrani

Abstract:

The karyotypes of Khalas (KH), Sukkary (SK), Sheeshi (SS), Shibeebi (SB) and Sillije (SJ) date palm cultivars were investigated. Data showed no variation in chromosome number, 2n = 36, 34 autosomes in addition to XX in females and XY in males. Mean autosomes length ranged from 3.85-9.93 μm and 3.71-2.73 μm for X and Y chromosomes, respectively. The formula of female date palm karyotype was 8m + 4sm +2st + 4t, and submedian Y chromosome. Relative chromosome length ranged from 3.3- 9.38 μm. SS cultivar showed high asymmetry levels by scoring low values of Syi (45.51), TF (42.8) and high values for A1 (0.53), A (0.41) and AI (0.29). Syi developed an inverse relation with A1 and A while A exhibited a direct correlation with A1. Cultivars SK, SB and SJ score medium values of Syi, A1, AI and A. KH cultivar exhibited high symmetry by scoring highest values of Syi (53.68), TF (51.81) and lowest values of A1 (0.44), A (0.34) and AI (0.18). Higher DI value was obtained in SB cultivar (1.34) followed by SJ (1.15) and low DI scores of 0.99, 0.86 and 0.71 were detected in KH, SS and SK, respectively. Stebbins classification assorted SS as 3B and the other cultivars as 2B, insuring the evolution and asymmetry of SS compared to the other karyotypes. Scatter diagram of Syi-A1 couple has the advantage of revealing high degree of sensitivity to present karyotype interrelationships, followed by AI-A and CVCL-CVCI couples.

Keywords: date palm, Karyotype, Khalas, Sukkary, Sheeshi

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3 Exploring the Association between Risks Emerging from Climate Change Scenarios and the Built Environment

Authors: Abdel Halim Boussabaine, Abdullah M. Alzahrani

Abstract:

There is an international consensus on the climate change in the entire world and this is as a result of the combination of the natural factors, such as volcanoes and hurricanes with increased of human activity on the earth, such as industrial renaissance. Where this solidarity increases emissions of greenhouse gases GHGs that considered as the main driver of climate change scenarios and related emerging risks and impacts on buildings. These climatic risks including damages, disruption and disquiet are set to increase and it is considered as the main challenges and difficulties facing built environment due to major implications on assets sector. Consequently, the threat from climate change patterns has a significant impact on a variety of complex human decisions, which affect all aspects of living. Understanding the relationship between buildings and such risks arising from climate change scenarios on buildings are the key in insuring the optimal timing and design of policies and systems, which affect all aspects of the built environment. This paper will uncovering this correlation between emerging climate change risks and the building assets. In addition, how these emerging risks can be classified in practical way in terms of their impact type on buildings. Hence, this mapping will assist professionals and interested parties in the building sector to cope with such risks in several systematic ways including development and designing of mitigation and adaptation strategies and processes of design, specification, construction, and operation; all these leads to successful management of assets.

Keywords: Climate Change, Built Environment, Impacts, climate change risks, building sector

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2 Expression of uPA, tPA, and PAI-1 in Calcified Aortic Valves

Authors: Abdullah M. Alzahrani

Abstract:

Our physiopathological assumption is that u-PA, t-PA, and PAI-1 are released by calcified aortic valves and play a role in the calcification of these valves. Sixty-five calcified aortic valves were collected from patients suffering from aortic stenosis. Each valve was incubated for 24 hours in culture medium. The supernatants were used to measure u-PA, t-PA, and PAI-1 concentrations; the valve calcification was evaluated using biphotonic absorptiometry. Aortic stenosis valves expressed normal plasminogen activators concentrations and overexpressed PAI-1 (u-PA, t-PA, and PAI-1 mean concentrations were, resp., 1.69 ng/mL ± 0.80, 2.76 ng/mL ± 1.33, and 53.27 ng/mL ± 36.39). There was no correlation between u-PA and PAI-1 (r = 0.3) but t-PA and PAI-1 were strongly correlated with each other (r = 0.6). Over expression of PAI-1 was proportional to the calcium content of theAS valves. Our results demonstrate a consistent increase of PAI-1 proportional to the calcification. The over expression of PAI-1 may be useful as a predictive indicator in patients with aortic stenosis.

Keywords: aortic valve, PAI-1, tPA gene, uPA gene

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1 ISSR-PCR Based Genetic Diversity Analysis on Copper Tolerant versus Wild Type Strains of Unicellular alga Chlorella Vulgaris

Authors: Abdullah M. Alzahrani

Abstract:

The unicellular alga Chlorella vulgaris was isolated from Al-Asfar Lake, which is located in the Al-Ahsa province of Saudi Arabia. Two different isolates were sub-cultured under laboratory conditions. The wild type was grown under a regular concentration of copper, whereas the other isolate was grown under a progressively increasing copper concentration. An Inter Simple Sequence Repeats (ISSR) analysis was performed using DNA isolated from the wild type and tolerant strains. The sum of the scored bands of the wild type was 155, with 100 (64.5%) considered to be polymorphic bands, whereas the resistant strain displayed 147 bands, with 92 (62.6%) considered to be polymorphic bands. The sum of the scored bands of a mixed sample was 117 bands, of which only 4 (3.4%) were considered to be polymorphic. The average Nei's genetic diversity (h) and Shannon-Weiner diversity indices (I) were 0.3891 and 0.5394, respectively. These results clearly indicate that the adaptation to a high level of copper in Chlorella vulgaris is not merely physiological but rather driven by modifications at the genomic level.

Keywords: Genetic Diversity, chlorella vulgaris, copper tolerance, green algae

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