Prem Kumar

Abstracts

2 Isolation and Probiotic Characterization of Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactococcus lactis from Gut Microbiome of Rohu (Labeo rohita)

Authors: Anuj Tyagi, Prem Kumar, Harsh Panwar, Vaneet Inder Kaur

Abstract:

Though aquaculture started as an occupation for poor and weak farmers for livelihood, it has now acquired the shape of one of the biggest industry to grow live protein in the form of aquatic organisms. Industrialization of the aquaculture sector has led to intensification resulting in stress on aquatic organisms and frequent disease outbreaks leading to huge economic impacts. Indiscriminate use of antibiotics as growth promoter and prophylactic agent in aquaculture has resulted in rapid emergence and spread of antibiotic resistance in bacterial pathogens. Over the past few years, use of probiotics (as an alternative of antibiotics) in aquaculture has gained attention due to their immunostimulant and growth promoting properties. It has now well known that after administration, a probiotic bacterium has to compete and establish itself against native microbiota to show its eventual beneficial properties. Due to their non-fish origin, commercial probiotics sometimes may display poor probiotic functionalities and antagonistic effects. Thus, isolation and characterization of probiotic bacteria from same fish host is very much necessary. In this study, attempts were made to isolate potent probiotic lactic acid bacteria (LAB) from intestinal microflora of rohu fish. Twenty-five experimental rohu fishes (mean weight 400 ± 20gm, mean standard length 20 ± 3cm) were used in the study to collect fish gut after dissection in a sterile condition. A total of 150 tentative LAB isolates from selective agar media (de Man-Rogosa-Sharpe (MRS)) were screened for their antimicrobial activity against Aeromonas hydrophila and Microccocus leuteus. A total of 17 isolates, identified as Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactococcus lactis, identified by biochemical tests and PCR amplification and sequencing of 16S rRNA gene fragment, displayed promising antimicrobial activity against both the pathogens. Two isolates from each species (FLB1, FLB2 from L. plantarum; and FLC1, FLC2 from L. lactis) were subjected to downstream probiotic potential characterization. These isolates were compared in vitro for their hemolytic activity, acid and bile tolerance for growth kinetics, auto-aggregation, cell-surface hydrophobicity against xylene, and chloroform, tolerance to phenol, cell adhesion, and safety parameters (by intraperitoneal and intramuscular injections). None of the tested isolates showed any hemolytic activity indicating their potential safety. Moreover, these isolates were tolerant to 0.3% bile (75-82% survival), phenol stress (96-99% survival) with 100% viability at pH 3 over a period of 3 h. Antibiotic sensitivity test revealed that all the tested LAB isolates were resistant to vancomycin, gentamicin, streptomycin, and erythromycin and sensitive to Erythromycin, Chloramphenicol, Ampicillin, Trimethoprim, and Nitrofurantoin. Tetracycline resistance was found in L. plantarum (FLB1 and FLB2 isolates), whereas L. lactis were susceptible to it. Intramuscular and intraperitoneal challenges to fingerlings of rohu fish (5 ± 1gm weight) with FLB1 showed no pathogenicity and occurrence of disease symptoms in fishes over an observation period of 7 days. The results revealed FLB1 as a potential probiotic candidate for aquaculture application among other isolates.

Keywords: Aquaculture, Probiotics, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactococcus lactis

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1 The Understanding of Biochemical and Molecular Analysis of Diabetic Rats Treated with Andrographis paniculata and Erythrina indica Methanol Extract

Authors: Arun Jyothi Bheemagani, Chakrapani Pullagummi, B. Chandra Sekhar Singh, Prem Kumar, A. Roja Rani

Abstract:

Diabetes mellitus describes a metabolic disorder of multiple aetiology characterized by chronic hyperglycaemia with disturbances of carbohydrate, fat and protein metabolism resulting from defects in insulin secretion and its action. The objective of present study was alloxan induced diabetes in S.D (Sprague Dawley) rats, treated with leaf extract of Andrographis paniculata and bark extract of Erythrina indica. Plant extract treated rats were analyzed biochemically and molecularly. on normal and diabetic rats. The changes in MDA (lipid peroxidation) and glucose (by GOD method) levels in blood of both normal and diabetic rat were analyzed. Diabetes induced rats were treated with methanolic extracts of Andrographis paniculata leaf and Erythrina indica bark which are of medicinal importance. Later after inducing diabetes the rats were treated with medicinal plant extracts, Andrographis paniculata leaf and Erythrina indica bark which are well known for their anti diabetic and antioxidative property in order to control the glucose and MDA levels. The blood plasma of diabetic and normal rats was analyzed for the levels of MDA (lipid peroxidation) and glucose levels. Results of this study suggested that the Andrographis paniculata leaf and Erythrina indica can be used as a potential natural antidiabetic agent for treating and postponing the appearance of complications that arise due to Diabetes. Molecular study deals with the analysis of binding mechanism of 2 selected natural compounds from Andrographis and Erythrina extracts against the novel target for type T2D namely PPAR-γ compared with Rosiglitazone (standard compound). The results revealed that most of the selected herbal lead compounds were effective targets against the receptors. These compounds showed favorable interactions with the amino acid residues thereby substantiating their proven efficacy as anti-diabetic compounds.

Keywords: Lipid Peroxidation, andrographis paniculata, erythrina indica, alloxan, blood glucose level, PPAR-γ

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