Aneta Nitsch-Osuch

Abstracts

4 Decreasing Hepatitis B and Tuberculosis Vaccine Coverage Rates among Neonates in Poland, 2015-2017

Authors: Aneta Nitsch-Osuch, Beata Pawlus, Maria Pawlak

Abstract:

Introduction: Recently, the number of parents who refuse to vaccinate their children or present so-called hesitant behaviors has increased in many developed countries. The study aimed to analyze the completeness and timeliness of vaccinations against hepatitis B and tuberculosis in neonates in a single maternity hospital in Warsaw (Poland). Material and Methods: We analyzed medical records of children born in the hospital between 1st January 2015 and 31st December 2016 and calculated the proportion of newborns not vaccinated on time. Results: The percentage of unvaccinated newborns was similar in the analyzed years: 7.2% in 2015 and 6.7% in 2016. Parental decisions rather than medical contraindications caused non-immunization (4.3% vs. 2.9% in 2015, and 4.7% vs. 2% in 2016). Most parents refused both vaccinations (81%-84%), whereas 7-8% refused only hep B vaccination, and 9-11% refused alone tuberculosis vaccination. The majority of hesitant parents decided to delay both vaccinations (70-80%), while 10-11% of parents chose to delay only one vaccination (hep B). In consecutive years, an increase in the percentage of parents delaying tuberculosis vaccination was reported (10 vs. 19%). Discussion: The increase in the number of newborns who are not correctly vaccinated just after birth due to their parents' decision should be considered non-gradual, both for hepatitis B and tuberculosis. It is necessary to implement effective educational and informative measures targeted at future parents to reinforce positive attitudes towards vaccinations and to dispel doubts about them among parents who are hesitant.

Keywords: Tuberculosis, Immunization, Hepatitis B, new-borns, coverage rate

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3 Evaluation of Hospital Antibiotic Policy Implementation at the Oncosurgery Ward: A Six Years' Experience

Authors: Aneta Nitsch-Osuch, Damian Okrucinski, Magdalena Dawgialło, Izabela Gołębiak, Ernest Kuchar

Abstract:

The Hospital Antibiotic Policy (HAP) should be implemented to rationalize the antibiotic use and to decrease the risk of spreading of spreading of resistant bacteria. The aim of our study was to describe the antibiotic consumption patterns at the single oncosurgery ward before and after implementation of the HAP. We conducted a retrospective analysis of the antibiotic use at the Oncosurgery Ward in Warsaw (Poland) in years 2011-2016. Calculations were based on daily defined doses (DDDs), DDDs/100 hospitalizations and DDDs/100 person-days, drug utilization rates (DU 90% and DU 100%) were also analysed. After implementation of the HAP, the total antibiotic consumption increased (365.35 DDD in 2011 vs. 1359,22 DDD in 2016). The significant change was observed in antibiotic consumption patterns: the use of amoxicillin clavulanate and carbapenems or glycopeptides decreased significantly (p < 0,05), while the use of ciprofloxacin and aminoglycosides increased (p < 0,05). The DU100% rate varied from 6 in 2011 to 12 in 2016; while DU 90% rate varied from 2 in 2011 to 3-5 in 2013-2016. Although the implementation of the HAP did not result in the decreased total antibiotic consumption, it provided favorable changes in the antibiotic consumption patterns.

Keywords: hospital, Policy, Stewardship, Antibiotics

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2 Low Pertussis Vaccine Coverage Rates among Polish Nurses

Authors: Aneta Nitsch-Osuch, Sylwia Dyk, Izabela Gołebiak

Abstract:

Background. Since 2014 the pertussis vaccine is recommended to Polish health care workers who have close contacts with infants. Although this recommendation is implemented into the National Immunization Programme, its realization has remained unknown. The Purpose: The aim of the study, conducted at the department of Social Medicine and Public Health (Medical University of Warsaw, Poland), was to describe a perception, knowledge and coverage rates regarding pertussis vaccination among nursing staff. According to the authors' knowledge, it was the first study related to this topic in our country. Material and Methods: A total number of 543 nurses who work at pediatric or neonatal wards was included into the study (501 women and 42 men), average age was 47 years. All nurses were asked to fulfill the anonymous survey, previously validated. Results: 1. Coverage rates: The analysis of results revealed that only 4% of responders reported they were vaccinated with Tdpa within past 10 years, while 8% declared they would plan the vaccine in the future. 35% of responders would consider the Tdpa vaccine whether there is some kind of the reimbursement. 2. Perception and knowledge of the disease and vaccination: The majority (82%) of nurses did not recognize pertussis as a re-emerging infectious disease. 54% of them believed that obligatory vaccinations in the childhood protect against the disease and the protection is a life-long one. Only 15% of nurses considered pertussis as a possible nosocomial infection. The current epidemiology of the disease was known to 6% of responders, while 24% of them were familiar with pertussis vaccination schedules for infants, children and adolescents, but only 9% of responders knew that adults older than 19 years are recommended to be vaccinated with Tdpa every 10 years. Many nurses (82%) would expect more educational activities related to pertussis and methods of its prophylaxis. Conclusions: The pertussis vaccine coverage rate among Polish nurses is extremely low. This is a result of not enough knowledge about the disease and its prevention. Educational activities addressed to health care workers and reimbursement of the pertussis vaccine are required to improve awareness and increase of vaccine coverage rates in the future.

Keywords: Vaccine, coverage, nurse, pertussis

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1 Low Influenza Vaccine Coverage Rates among Polish Nurses

Authors: Aneta Nitsch-Osuch, Katarzyna Zycinska, Ewa Gyrczuk, Agnieszka Topczewska-Cabanek, Kazimierz Wardyn

Abstract:

Introduction: Influenza is an important clinical and epidemiological problem and should be considered as a possible nosocomial infection. The aim of the study was to determine the influenza vaccine coverage rates among Polish nurses and to find out drivers and barriers for influenza vaccination among this group of health care workers (HCWs). Material and methods: The self- fulfilled survey with 26 questions about the knowledge, perception, and influenza coverage rates was distributed among 461 nurses. Results: Only 15% of nurses were vaccinated against influenza in the consecutive seasons. The majority (75%) of the regularly vaccinated nurses were ambulatory careworkers. The difference between the number of vaccinated hospitals and ambulatory care nurses was statistically significant (p < 0.05). The main motivating factors for an influenza vaccination were: a fear of the illness and its complications (97%) and a free of charge vaccine available at the workplace (87%). Ambulatory care nurses more often declared that they were vaccinated mainly to protect themselves while hospital care nurses more often declared the will to protect their patients, these differences in the perception and attitudes to an influenza vaccination among hospital and ambulatory care nurses were statistically significant (p < 0.05). The main barriers for an influenza vaccination among the nursing staff were: a lack of reimbursement of the vaccine (95%), a lack of insufficient knowledge about the effectiveness, and safety of the influenza vaccine (54%). The ambulatory care nurses more often found influenza vaccination as the ethical duty compared to hospital care nurses (p < 0.05). Conclusions: The influenza vaccine coverage rates among the Polish nurses are low and must be improved in the future. More educational activities dedicated to HCWs may result in the increased awareness of influenza vaccination benefits for both medical professionals and patients.

Keywords: Vaccination, Influenza, Nurses, ambulatory careworkers

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