Moon Suk Kim


3 Anticancer Effect of Doxorubicin Using Injectable Hydrogel

Authors: Prasamsha Panta, Da Yeon Kim, Ja Yong Jang, Min Jae Kim, Jae Ho Kim, Moon Suk Kim


Introduction: Among the many anticancer drugs used clinically, doxorubicin (Dox), was one of widely used drugs to treat many types of solid tumors such as liver, colon, breast, or lung. Intratumoral injection of chemotherapeutic agents is a potentially more effective alternative to systemic administration because direct delivery of the anticancer drug to the target may improve both the stability and efficacy of anticancer drugs. Injectable in situ-forming gels have attracted considerable attention because they can achieve site specific drug delivery, long term action periods, and improved patient compliance. Objective: Objective of present study is to confirm clinical benefit of intratumoral chemotherapy using injectable in situ-forming poly(ethylene glycol)-b-polycaprolactone diblock copolymer (MP) and Dox with increase in efficacy and reducing the toxicity in patients with cancer diseases. Methods and methodology: We prepared biodegradable MP hydrogel and measured viscosity for the evaluation of thermo-sensitive property. In vivo antitumor activity was performed with normal saline, MP only, single free Dox, repeat free Dox, and Dox-loaded MP gel. The remaining amount of Dox drug was measured using HPLC after the mouse was sacrified. For cytotoxicity studies WST-1 assay was performed. Histological analysis was done with H&E and TUNEL processes respectively. Results: The works in this experiment showed that Dox-loaded MP have biodegradable drug depot property. Dox-loaded MP gels showed remarkable in vitro cytotoxicity activities against cancer cells. Finally, this work indicates that injection of Dox-loaded MP allowed Dox to act effectively in the tumor and induced long-lasting supression of tumor growth. Conclusion: This work has examined the potential clinical utility of intratumorally injected Dox-loaded MP gel, which shows significant effect of higher local Dox retention compared with systemically administered Dox.

Keywords: doxorubicin, anticancer, injectable in-situ forming hydrogel, intratumoral injection

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2 Preparation and Evaluation of Poly(Ethylene Glycol)-B-Poly(Caprolactone) Diblock Copolymers with Zwitterionic End Group for Thermo-Responsive Properties

Authors: Bo Keun Lee, Doo Yeon Kwon, Ji Hoon Park, Gun Hee Lee, Ji Hye Baek, Heung Jae Chun, Young Joo Koh, Moon Suk Kim


Thermo-responsive materials are viscoelastic materials that undergo a sol-to-gel phase transition at a specific temperature and many materials have been developed. MPEG-b-PCL (MPC) as a thermo-responsive material contained hydrophilic and hydrophobic segments and it formed an ordered crystalline structure of hydrophobic PCL segments in aqueous solutions. The ordered crystalline structure packed tightly or aggregated and finally induced an aggregated gel through intra- and inter-molecular interactions as a function of temperature. Thus, we introduced anionic and cationic groups into the end positions of the PCL chain to alter the hydrophobicity of the PCL segment. Introducing anionic and cationic groups into the PCL end position altered their solubility by changing the crystallinity and hydrophobicity of the PCL block domains. These results indicated that the properties of the end group in the hydrophobic PCL blockand the balance between hydrophobicity and hydrophilicity affect thermo-responsivebehavior of the copolymers in aqueous solutions. Thus, we concluded that determinant of the temperature-dependent thermo-responsive behavior of MPC depend on the ionic end group in the PCL block. So, we introduced zwitterionic end groups to investigate the thermo-responsive behavior of MPC. Methoxypoly(ethylene oxide) and ε-caprolactone (CL) were randomly copolymerized that introduced varying hydrophobic PCL lengths and an MPC featuring a zwitterionic sulfobetaine (MPC-ZW) at the chain end of the PCL segment. The MPC and MPC-ZW copolymers were obtained formed sol-state at room temperature when prepared as 20-wt% aqueous solutions. The solubility of MPC decreased when the PCL block was increased from molecular weight. The solubilization time of MPC-2.4k was around 20 min and MPC-2.8k, MPC-3.0k increased to 30 min and 1 h, respectively. MPC-3.6k was not solubilized. In case of MPC-ZW 3.6k, However, the zwitterion-modified MPC copolymers were solubilized in 3–5 min. This result indicates that the zwitterionic end group of the MPC-ZW diblock copolymer increased the aqueous solubility of the diblock copolymer even when the length of the hydrophobic PCL segment was increased. MPC and MPC-ZW diblock copolymers that featuring zwitterionic end groups were synthesized successfully. The sol-to-gel phase-transition was formed that specific temperature depend on the length of the PCL hydrophobic segments introduced and on the zwitterion groups attached to the MPC chain end. This result indicated that the zwitterionic end groups reduced the hydrophobicity in the PCL block and changed the solubilization. The MPC-ZW diblock copolymer can be utilized as a potential injectable drug and cell carrier.

Keywords: Crystallization, Phase Transition, thermo-responsive material, zwitterionic, hydrophobic

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1 Osteogenesis in Thermo-Sensitive Hydrogel Using Mesenchymal Stem Cell Derived from Human Turbinate

Authors: A. Reum Son, Jin Seon Kwon, Seung Hun Park, Hai Bang Lee, Moon Suk Kim


These days, stem cell therapy is focused on for promising source of treatment in clinical human disease. As a supporter of stem cells, in situ-forming hydrogels with growth factors and cells appear to be a promising approach in tissue engineering. To examine osteogenic differentiation of hTMSCs which is one of mesenchymal stem cells in vivo in an injectable hydrogel, we use a methoxy polyethylene glycol-polycaprolactone blockcopolymer (MPEG-PCL) solution with osteogenic factors. We synthesized MPEG-PCL hydrogel and measured viscosity to check sol-gel transition. In order to demonstrate osteogenic ability of hTMSCs, we conducted in vitro osteogenesis experiment. Then, to confirm the cell cytotoxicity, we performed WST-1 with hTMSCs and MPEG-PCL. As the result of in vitro experiment, we implanted cell and hydrogel mixture into animal model and checked degree of osteogenesis with histological analysis and amount of expression genes. Through these experimental data, MPEG-PCL hydrogel has sol-gel transition in temperature change and is biocompatible with stem cells. In histological analysis and gene expression, hTMSCs are very good source of osteogenesis with hydrogel and will use it to tissue engineering as important treatment method. hTMSCs could be a good adult stem cell source for usability of isolation and high proliferation. When hTMSCs are used as cell therapy method with in situ-formed hydrogel, they may provide various benefits like a noninvasive alternative for bone tissue engineering applications.

Keywords: Stem Cell, Tissue Engineering, injectable hydrogel, osteogenic differentiation

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