Sanjay Kumar Sharma

Publications

2 Utilization of Process Mapping Tool to Enhance Production Drilling in Underground Metal Mining Operations

Authors: Sanjay Kumar Sharma, Sidharth Talan, Eoin Joseph Wallace, Nikita Agrawal

Abstract:

Underground mining is at the core of rapidly evolving metals and minerals sector due to the increasing mineral consumption globally. Even though the surface mines are still more abundant on earth, the scales of industry are slowly tipping towards underground mining due to rising depth and complexities of orebodies. Thus, the efficient and productive functioning of underground operations depends significantly on the synchronized performance of key elements such as operating site, mining equipment, manpower and mine services. Production drilling is the process of conducting long hole drilling for the purpose of charging and blasting these holes for the production of ore in underground metal mines. Thus, production drilling is the crucial segment in the underground metal mining value chain. This paper presents the process mapping tool to evaluate the production drilling process in the underground metal mining operation by dividing the given process into three segments namely Input, Process and Output. The three segments are further segregated into factors and sub-factors. As per the study, the major input factors crucial for the efficient functioning of production drilling process are power, drilling water, geotechnical support of the drilling site, skilled drilling operators, services installation crew, oils and drill accessories for drilling machine, survey markings at drill site, proper housekeeping, regular maintenance of drill machine, suitable transportation for reaching the drilling site and finally proper ventilation. The major outputs for the production drilling process are ore, waste as a result of dilution, timely reporting and investigation of unsafe practices, optimized process time and finally well fragmented blasted material within specifications set by the mining company. The paper also exhibits the drilling loss matrix, which is utilized to appraise the loss in planned production meters per day in a mine on account of availability loss in the machine due to breakdowns, underutilization of the machine and productivity loss in the machine measured in drilling meters per unit of percussion hour with respect to its planned productivity for the day. The given three losses would be essential to detect the bottlenecks in the process map of production drilling operation so as to instigate the action plan to suppress or prevent the causes leading to the operational performance deficiency. The given tool is beneficial to mine management to focus on the critical factors negatively impacting the production drilling operation and design necessary operational and maintenance strategies to mitigate them. 

Keywords: Productivity, Availability, Utilization, process map, drilling loss matrix, percussion rate

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1 Structural Characteristics of HPDSP Concrete on Beam Column Joints

Authors: SUSHIL KUMAR, Sushil Kumar Swar, Sanjay Kumar Sharma, Hari Krishan Sharma

Abstract:

The seriously damaged structures during earthquakes show the need and importance of design of reinforced concrete structures with high ductility. Reinforced concrete beam-column joints have an important function in all structures. Under seismic excitation, the beam column joint region is subjected to horizontal and vertical shear forces whose magnitude is many times higher than the adjacent beam and column. Strength and ductility of structures depends mainly on proper detailing of the reinforcement in beamcolumn joints and the old structures were found ductility deficient. DSP materials are obtained by using high quantities of super plasticizers and high volumes of micro silica. In the case of High Performance Densified Small Particle Concrete (HPDSPC), since concrete is dense even at the micro-structure level, tensile strain would be much higher than that of the conventional SFRC, SIFCON & SIMCON. This in turn will improve cracking behaviour, ductility and energy absorption capacity of composites in addition to durability. The fine fibers used in our mix are 0.3mm diameter and 10 mm which can be easily placed with high percentage. These fibers easily transfer stresses and act as a composite concrete unit to take up extremely high loads with high compressive strength. HPDSPC placed in the beam column joints helps in safety of human life due to prolonged failure.

Keywords: High Performance Densified Small Particle Concrete (HPDSPC), Steel Fıber Reinforced Concrete (SFRC), Slurry Infiltrated Concrete (SIFCON), Slurry Infiltrated Mat Concrete (SIMCON)

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Abstracts

2 Utilization of Process Mapping Tool to Enhance Production Drilling in Underground Metal Mining Operations

Authors: Sanjay Kumar Sharma, Sidharth Talan, Eoin Joseph Wallace, Nikita Agrawal

Abstract:

Underground mining is at the core of rapidly evolving metals and minerals sector due to the increasing mineral consumption globally. Even though the surface mines are still more abundant on earth, the scales of industry are slowly tipping towards underground mining due to rising depth and complexities of orebodies. Thus, the efficient and productive functioning of underground operations depends significantly on the synchronized performance of key elements such as operating site, mining equipment, manpower and mine services. Production drilling is the process of conducting long hole drilling for the purpose of charging and blasting these holes for the production of ore in underground metal mines. Thus, production drilling is the crucial segment in the underground metal mining value chain. This paper presents the process mapping tool to evaluate the production drilling process in the underground metal mining operation by dividing the given process into three segments namely Input, Process and Output. The three segments are further segregated into factors and sub-factors. As per the study, the major input factors crucial for the efficient functioning of production drilling process are power, drilling water, geotechnical support of the drilling site, skilled drilling operators, services installation crew, oils and drill accessories for drilling machine, survey markings at drill site, proper housekeeping, regular maintenance of drill machine, suitable transportation for reaching the drilling site and finally proper ventilation. The major outputs for the production drilling process are ore, waste as a result of dilution, timely reporting and investigation of unsafe practices, optimized process time and finally well fragmented blasted material within specifications set by the mining company. The paper also exhibits the drilling loss matrix, which is utilized to appraise the loss in planned production meters per day in a mine on account of availability loss in the machine due to breakdowns, underutilization of the machine and productivity loss in the machine measured in drilling meters per unit of percussion hour with respect to its planned productivity for the day. The given three losses would be essential to detect the bottlenecks in the process map of production drilling operation so as to instigate the action plan to suppress or prevent the causes leading to the operational performance deficiency. The given tool is beneficial to mine management to focus on the critical factors negatively impacting the production drilling operation and design necessary operational and maintenance strategies to mitigate them. 

Keywords: Productivity, SIPOC, process map, drilling loss matrix, percussion rate

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1 Structural Characteristics of HPDSP Concrete on Beam Column Joints

Authors: Sushil Kumar Swar, Sanjay Kumar Sharma, Hari Krishan Sharma

Abstract:

Inadequate transverse reinforcement is considered as the main reason for the beam column joint shear failure observed during recent earthquakes. DSP matrix consists of cement and high content of micro-silica with low water to cement ratio while the aggregates are graded quartz sand. The use of reinforcing fibres leads not only to the increase of tensile/bending strength and specific fracture energy, but also to reduction of brittleness and, consequently, to production of non-explosive ruptures. Besides, fibre-reinforced materials are more homogeneous and less sensitive to small defects and flaws. Recent works on the freeze-thaw durability (also in the presence of de-icing salts) of fibre-reinforced DSP confirm the excellent behaviour in the expected long term service life.DSP materials, including fibre-reinforced DSP and CRC (Compact Reinforced Composites) are obtained by using high quantities of super plasticizers and high volumes of micro-silica. Steel fibres with high tensile yield strength of smaller diameter and short length in different fibre volume percentage and aspect ratio tilized to improve the performance by reducing the brittleness of matrix material. In the case of High Performance Densified Small Particle Concrete (HPDSPC), concrete is dense at the micro-structure level, tensile strain would be much higher than that of the conventional SFRC, SIFCON & SIMCON. Beam-column sub-assemblages used as moment resisting constructed using HPDSPC in the joint region with varying quantities of steel fibres, fibre aspect ratio and fibre orientation in the critical section. These HPDSPC in the joint region sub-assemblages tested under cyclic/earthquake loading. Besides loading measurements, frame displacements, diagonal joint strain and rebar strain adjacent to the joint will also be measured to investigate stress-strain behaviour, load deformation characteristics, joint shear strength, failure mechanism, ductility associated parameters, stiffness and energy dissipated parameters of the beam column sub-assemblages also evaluated. Finally a design procedure for the optimum design of HPDSPC corresponding to moment, shear forces and axial forces for the reinforced concrete beam-column joint sub-assemblage proposed. The fact that the implementation of material brittleness measure in the design of RC structures can improve structural reliability by providing uniform safety margins over a wide range of structural sizes and material compositions well recognized in the structural design and research. This lead to the development of high performance concrete for the optimized combination of various structural ratios in concrete for the optimized combination of various structural properties. The structural applications of HPDSPC, because of extremely high strength, will reduce dead load significantly as compared to normal weight concrete thereby offering substantial cost saving and by providing improved seismic response, longer spans, and thinner sections, less reinforcing steel and lower foundation cost. These cost effective parameters will make this material more versatile for use in various structural applications like beam-column joints in industries, airports, parking areas, docks, harbours, and also containers for hazardous material, safety boxes and mould & tools for polymer composites and metals.

Keywords: high performance densified small particle concrete (HPDSPC), steel fibre reinforced concrete (SFRC), slurry infiltrated concrete (SIFCON), Slurry infiltrated mat concrete (SIMCON)

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