Alper Okyar

Abstracts

2 Relevance of Dosing Time for Everolimus Toxicity in Respect to the Circadian P-Glycoprotein Expression in Mdr1a::Luc Mice

Authors: Narin Ozturk, Alper Okyar, Xiao-Mei Li, Sylvie Giachetti, Francis Levi

Abstract:

P-glycoprotein (P-gp, MDR1, ABCB1) is a transmembrane protein acting as an ATP-dependent efflux pump and functions as a biological barrier by extruding drugs and xenobiotics out of cells in healthy tissues especially in intestines, liver and brain as well as in tumor cells. The circadian timing system controls a variety of biological functions in mammals including xenobiotic metabolism and detoxification, proliferation and cell cycle events, and may affect pharmacokinetics, toxicity and efficacy of drugs. Selective mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin) inhibitor everolimus is an immunosuppressant and anticancer drug that is active against many cancers, and its pharmacokinetics depend on P-gp. The aim of this study was to investigate the dosing time-dependent toxicity of everolimus with respect to the intestinal P-gp expression rhythms in mdr1a::Luc mice using Real Time-Biolumicorder (RT-BIO) System. Mdr1a::Luc male mice were synchronized with 12 h of Light and 12 h of Dark (LD12:12, with Zeitgeber Time 0 – ZT0 – corresponding Light onset). After 1-week baseline recordings, everolimus (5 mg/kg/day x 14 days) was administered orally at ZT1-resting period- and ZT13-activity period- to mdr1a::Luc mice singly housed in an innovative monitoring device, Real Time-Biolumicorder units which let us monitor real-time and long-term gene expression in freely moving mice. D-luciferin (1.5 mg/mL) was dissolved in drinking water. Mouse intestinal mdr1a::Luc oscillation profile reflecting P-gp gene expression and locomotor activity pattern were recorded every minute with the photomultiplier tube and infrared sensor respectively. General behavior and clinical signs were monitored, and body weight was measured every day as an index of toxicity. Drug-induced body weight change was expressed relative to body weight on the initial treatment day. Statistical significance of differences between groups was validated with ANOVA. Circadian rhythms were validated with Cosinor Analysis. Everolimus toxicity changed as a function of drug timing, which was least following dosing at ZT13, near the onset of the activity span in male mice. Mean body weight loss was nearly twice as large in mice treated with 5 mg/kg everolimus at ZT1 as compared to ZT13 (8.9% vs. 5.4%; ANOVA, p < 0.001). Based on the body weight loss and clinical signs upon everolimus treatment, tolerability for the drug was best following dosing at ZT13. Both rest-activity and mdr1a::Luc expression displayed stable 24-h periodic rhythms before everolimus and in both vehicle-treated controls. Real-time bioluminescence pattern of mdr1a revealed a circadian rhythm with a 24-h period with an acrophase at ZT16 (Cosinor, p < 0.001). Mdr1a expression remained rhythmic in everolimus-treated mice, whereas down-regulation was observed in P-gp expression in 2 of 4 mice. The study identified the circadian pattern of intestinal P-gp expression with an unprecedented precision. The circadian timing depending on the P-gp expression rhythms may play a crucial role in the tolerability/toxicity of everolimus. The circadian changes in mdr1a genes deserve further studies regarding their relevance for in vitro and in vivo chronotolerance of mdr1a-transported anticancer drugs. Chronotherapy with P-gp-effluxed anticancer drugs could then be applied according to their rhythmic patterns in host and tumor to jointly maximize treatment efficacy and minimize toxicity.

Keywords: Circadian Rhythm, p-glycoprotein, chronotoxicity, everolimus, mdr1a::Luc mice

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1 Relevance of Dosing Time for Everolimus Toxicity on Thyroid Gland and Hormones in Mice

Authors: Dilek Ozturk, Narin Ozturk, Zeliha Pala Kara, Engin Kaptan, Serap Sancar Bas, Nurten Ozsoy, Alper Okyar

Abstract:

Most physiological processes oscillate in a rhythmic manner in mammals including metabolism and energy homeostasis, locomotor activity, hormone secretion, immune and endocrine system functions. Endocrine body rhythms are tightly regulated by the circadian timing system. The hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis is under circadian control at multiple levels from hypothalamus to thyroid gland. Since circadian timing system controls a variety of biological functions in mammals, circadian rhythms of biological functions may modify the drug tolerability/toxicity depending on the dosing time. Selective mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin) inhibitor everolimus is an immunosuppressant and anticancer agent that is active against many cancers. It was also found to be active in medullary thyroid cancer. The aim of this study was to investigate the dosing time-dependent toxicity of everolimus on the thyroid gland and hormones in mice. Healthy C57BL/6J mice were synchronized with 12h:12h Light-Dark cycle (LD12:12, with Zeitgeber Time 0 – ZT0 – corresponding to Light onset). Everolimus was administered to male (5 mg/kg/day) and female mice (15 mg/kg/day) orally at ZT1-rest period- and ZT13-activity period- for 4 weeks; body weight loss, clinical signs and possible changes in serum thyroid hormone levels (TSH and free T4) were examined. Histological alterations in the thyroid gland were evaluated according to the following criteria: follicular size, colloid density and viscidity, height of the follicular epithelium and the presence of necrotic cells. The statistical significance between differences was analyzed with ANOVA. Study findings included everolimus-related diarrhea, decreased activity, decreased body weight gains, alterations in serum TSH levels, and histopathological changes in thyroid gland. Decreases in mean body weight gains were more evident in mice treated at ZT1 as compared to ZT13 (p < 0.001, for both sexes). Control tissue sections of thyroid glands exhibited well-organized histoarchitecture when compared to everolimus-treated groups. Everolimus caused histopathological alterations in thyroid glands in male (5 mg/kg, slightly) and female mice (15 mg/kg; p < 0.01 for both ZT as compared to their controls) irrespective of dosing-time. TSH levels were slightly decreased upon everolimus treatment at ZT13 in both males and females. Conversely, increases in TSH levels were observed when everolimus treated at ZT1 in both males (5 mg/kg; p < 0.05) and females (15 mg/kg; slightly). No statistically significant alterations in serum free T4 levels were observed. TSH and free T4 is clinically important thyroid hormones since a number of disease states have been linked to alterations in these hormones. Serum free T4 levels within the normal ranges in the presence of abnormal serum TSH levels in everolimus treated mice may suggest subclinical thyroid disease which may have repercussions on the cardiovascular system, as well as on other organs and systems. Our study has revealed the histological damage on thyroid gland induced by subacute everolimus administration, this effect was irrespective of dosing time. However, based on the body weight changes and clinical signs upon everolimus treatment, tolerability for the drug was best following dosing at ZT13 in both male and females. Yet, effects of everolimus on thyroid functions may deserve further studies regarding their clinical importance and chronotoxicity.

Keywords: Thyroid Gland, Thyroid Hormones, Circadian Rhythm, chronotoxicity, everolimus

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