Y. S. Muzychka

Abstracts

3 Modelling and Investigation of Phase Change Phenomena of Multiple Water Droplets

Authors: Y. S. Muzychka, K. R. Sultana, K. Pope

Abstract:

In recent years, the research of heat transfer or phase change phenomena of liquid water droplets experiences a growing interest in aircraft icing, power transmission line icing, marine icing and wind turbine icing applications. This growing interest speeding up the research from single to multiple droplet phenomena. Impingements of multiple droplets and the resulting solidification phenomena after impact on a very cold surface is computationally studied in this paper. The model used in the current study solves the flow equation, composed of energy balance and the volume fraction equations. The main aim of the study is to investigate the effects of several thermo-physical properties (density, thermal conductivity and specific heat) on droplets freezing. The outcome is examined by various important factors, for instance, liquid fraction, total freezing time, droplet temperature and total heat transfer rate in the interface region. The liquid fraction helps to understand the complete phase change phenomena during solidification. Temperature distribution and heat transfer rate help to demonstrate the overall thermal exchange behaviors between the droplets and substrate surface. Findings of this research provide an important technical achievement for ice modeling and prediction studies.

Keywords: CFD, droplets, Solidification, thermos-physical properties

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2 Heat Transfer and Trajectory Models for a Cloud of Spray over a Marine Vessel

Authors: S. R. Dehghani, Y. S. Muzychka, G. F. Naterer

Abstract:

Wave-impact sea spray creates many droplets which form a spray cloud traveling over marine objects same as marine vessels and offshore structures. In cold climates such as Arctic reigns, sea spray icing, which is ice accretion on cold substrates, is strongly dependent on the wave-impact sea spray. The rate of cooling of droplets affects the process of icing that can yield to dry or wet ice accretion. Trajectories of droplets determine the potential places for ice accretion. Combining two models of trajectories and heat transfer for droplets can predict the risk of ice accretion reasonably. The majority of the cooling of droplets is because of droplet evaporations. In this study, a combined model using trajectory and heat transfer evaluate the situation of a cloud of spray from the generation to impingement. The model uses some known geometry and initial information from the previous case studies. The 3D model is solved numerically using a standard numerical scheme. Droplets are generated in various size ranges from 7 mm to 0.07 mm which is a suggested range for sea spray icing. The initial temperature of droplets is considered to be the sea water temperature. Wind velocities are assumed same as that of the field observations. Evaluations are conducted using some important heading angles and wind velocities. The characteristic of size-velocity dependence is used to establish a relation between initial sizes and velocities of droplets. Time intervals are chosen properly to maintain a stable and fast numerical solution. A statistical process is conducted to evaluate the probability of expected occurrences. The medium size droplets can reach the highest heights. Very small and very large droplets are limited to lower heights. Results show that higher initial velocities create the most expanded cloud of spray. Wind velocities affect the extent of the spray cloud. The rate of droplet cooling at the start of spray formation is higher than the rest of the process. This is because of higher relative velocities and also higher temperature differences. The amount of water delivery and overall temperature for some sample surfaces over a marine vessel are calculated. Comparing results and some field observations show that the model works accurately. This model is suggested as a primary model for ice accretion on marine vessels.

Keywords: Numerical Solution, trajectory, evaporation, sea spray, marine icing

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1 Numerical Investigation on Transient Heat Conduction through Brine-Spongy Ice

Authors: S. R. Dehghani, Y. S. Muzychka, G. F. Naterer

Abstract:

The ice accretion of salt water on cold substrates creates brine-spongy ice. This type of ice is a mixture of pure ice and liquid brine. A real case of creation of this type of ice is superstructure icing which occurs on marine vessels and offshore structures in cold and harsh conditions. Transient heat transfer through this medium causes phase changes between brine pockets and pure ice. Salt rejection during the process of transient heat conduction increases the salinity of brine pockets to reach a local equilibrium state. In this process the only effect of passing heat through the medium is not changing the sensible heat of the ice and brine pockets; latent heat plays an important role and affects the mechanism of heat transfer. In this study, a new analytical model for evaluating heat transfer through brine-spongy ice is suggested. This model considers heat transfer and partial solidification and melting together. Properties of brine-spongy ice are obtained using properties of liquid brine and pure ice. A numerical solution using Method of Lines discretizes the medium to reach a set of ordinary differential equations. Boundary conditions are chosen using one of the applicable cases of this type of ice; one side is considered as a thermally isolated surface, and the other side is assumed to be suddenly affected by a constant temperature boundary. All cases are evaluated in temperatures between -20 C and the freezing point of brine-spongy ice. Solutions are conducted using different salinities from 5 to 60 ppt. Time steps and space intervals are chosen properly to maintain the most stable and fast solution. Variation of temperature, volume fraction of brine and brine salinity versus time are the most important outputs of this study. Results show that transient heat conduction through brine-spongy ice can create a various range of salinity of brine pockets from the initial salinity to that of 180 ppt. The rate of variation of temperature is found to be slower for high salinity cases. The maximum rate of heat transfer occurs at the start of the simulation. This rate decreases as time passes. Brine pockets are smaller at portions closer to the colder side than that of the warmer side. A the start of the solution, the numerical solution tends to increase instabilities. This is because of sharp variation of temperature at the start of the process. Changing the intervals improves the unstable situation. The analytical model using a numerical scheme is capable of predicting thermal behavior of brine spongy ice. This model and numerical solutions are important for modeling the process of freezing of salt water and ice accretion on cold structures.

Keywords: Heat Conduction, method of lines, brine-spongy ice, salt water

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