Seonghun Park


2 Topology Optimization of Heat Exchanger Manifolds for Aircraft

Authors: Seonghun Park, Hanjong Kim, Changwan Han


Heat exchanger manifolds in aircraft play an important role in evenly distributing the fluid entering through the inlet to the heat transfer unit. In order to achieve this requirement, the manifold should be designed to have a light weight by withstanding high internal pressure. Therefore, this study aims at minimizing the weight of the heat exchanger manifold through topology optimization. For topology optimization, the initial design space was created with the inner surface extracted from the currently used manifold model and with the outer surface having a dimension of 243.42 mm of X 74.09 mm X 65 mm. This design space solid model was transformed into a finite element model with a maximum tetrahedron mesh size of 2 mm using ANSYS Workbench. Then, topology optimization was performed under the boundary conditions of an internal pressure of 5.5 MPa and the fixed support for rectangular inlet boundaries by SIMULIA TOSCA. This topology optimization produced the minimized finial volume of the manifold (i.e., 7.3% of the initial volume) based on the given constraints (i.e., 6% of the initial volume) and the objective function (i.e., maximizing manifold stiffness). Weight of the optimized model was 6.7% lighter than the currently used manifold, but after smoothing the topology optimized model, this difference would be bigger. The current optimized model has uneven thickness and skeleton-shaped outer surface to reduce stress concentration. We are currently simplifying the optimized model shape with spline interpolations by reflecting the design characteristics in thickness and skeletal structures from the optimized model. This simplified model will be validated again by calculating both stress distributions and weight reduction and then the validated model will be manufactured using 3D printing processes.

Keywords: heat exchanger, topology optimization, manifold

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1 Design of a Lumbar Interspinous Process Fixation Device for Minimizing Soft Tissue Removal and Operation Time

Authors: Minhyuk Heo, Jihwan Yun, Seonghun Park


It has been reported that intervertebral fusion surgery, which removes most of the ligaments and muscles of the spine, increases the degenerative disease in adjacent spinal segments. Therefore, it is required to develop a lumbar interspinous process fixation device that minimizes the risks and side effects from the surgery. The objective of the current study is to design an interspinous process fixation device with simple structures in order to minimize soft tissue removal and operation time during intervertebral fusion surgery. For the design concepts of a lumbar fixation device, the principle of the ratchet was first applied on the joining parts of the device in order to shorten the operation time. The coil spring structure was selected for connecting parts between the spinous processes so that a normal range of motion in spinal segments is preserved and degenerative spinal diseases are not developed in the adjacent spinal segments. The stiffness of the spring was determined not to interrupt the motion of a lumbar spine. The designed value of the spring stiffness allows the upper part of the spring to move ~10° which is higher than the range of flexion and extension for normal lumbar spine (6°-8°), when a moment of 10Nm is applied on the upper face of L1. A finite element (FE) model composed of L1 to L5 lumbar spines was generated to verify the mechanical integrity and the dynamic stability of the designed lumbar fixation device and to further optimize the lumbar fixation device. The FE model generated above produced the same pressure value on intervertebral disc and dynamic behavior as the normal intact model reported in the literature. The consistent results from this comparison validates the accuracy in the modeling of the current FE model. Currently, we are trying to generate an abnormal model with defects in one or more components of the normal FE model above. Then, the mechanical integrity and the dynamic stability of the designed lumbar fixation device will be analyzed after being installed in the abnormal model and then the lumbar fixation device will be further optimized.

Keywords: Kinematics, Finite Element Method, lumbar spine, lumbar interspinous process fixation device

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