Dhananjay W. Bansod


3 Adjustment with Changed Lifestyle at Old Age Homes: A Perspective of Elderly in India

Authors: Dhananjay W. Bansod, Santosh B. Phad, Priyanka V. Janbandhu


The current changing scenario of the family is a compelling aged group not only to be alone in a nuclear family but also to join the old age institutions. The consequences of it are feeling of neglected or left alone by the children, adding a touch of helpless in the absence of lack of expected care and support. The accretion of all these feelings and unpleasant events ignite a question in their mind that – who is there for me? The efforts have taken to highlight the issues of the elderly after joining the old age home and their perception about the current life as an institutional inmate. This attempt to cover up the condition, adjustment, changed lifestyle and perspective in the association with several issues of the elderly, which have an essential effect on their well-being. The present research piece has collected the information about institutionalized elderly with the help of a semi-structured questionnaire. This study interviewed 500 respondents from 22 old age homes of Pune city of Maharashtra State, India. This data collection methodology consists of Multi-stage random sampling. In which the stratified random sampling adopted for the selection of old age homes and sample size determination, sample selection probability proportional to the size and simple random sampling techniques implemented. The study provides that around five percent of the elderly shifted to old age home along with their spouse, whereas ten percent of the elderly are staying away from their spouse. More than 71 percent of the elderly have children, and they are an involuntary inmate of the old age institution, even less than one-third of the elderly consulted to the institution before the joining it. More than sixty percent of the elderly have children, but they joined institution due to the unpleasant response of their children only. Around half of the elderly responded that there are issues while adjusting to this environment, many of them are still persistent. At least one elderly out of ten is there who is suffering from the feeling of loneliness and left out by children and other family members. In contrast, around 97 percent of the elderly are very happy or satisfied with the institutional facilities. It illustrates that the issues are associated with their children and other family members, even though they left their home before a year or more. When enquired about this loneliness feeling few of them are suffering from it before leaving their homes, it was due to lack of interaction with children, as they are too busy to have time for the aged parents. Additionally, the conflicts or fights within the family due to the presence of old persons in the family contributed to establishing another feeling of insignificance among the elderly parents. According to these elderly, have more than 70 percent of the share, the children are ready to spend money indirectly for us through these institutions, but not prepared to provide some time and very few amounts of all this expenditure directly for us.

Keywords: India, Elderly, old age homes, life style changes and adjustment

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2 A Study on the Impact of Employment Status of the Elderly on Their Mental Well-Being in India

Authors: Dhananjay W. Bansod, Santosh B. Phad, Priyanka V. Janbandhu


Population Ageing is a growing concern for the social scientists. There is a higher level of aged male participation compared to elderly females. Now, the critical question is whether participation in work improves the quality of life among the elderly and the impact of working status on the mental well-being of the elderly. While examining these research questions, the present paper focuses on the workforce participation of the elderly and the reasons behind it, additionally, determines the association between employment status and the mental well-being of the elderly. The present study has a base of two data sources. First one is Census of India data, 2001 and 2011, and another one is – the Study on Global Ageing and Adult Health (SAGE), a survey conducted in 2007. To capture the trend of workforce participation elderly Census data is significant and to obtain other information associated with this issue the SAGE data is studied. The research piece consists of univariate and bivariate analysis along with some statistical methods like principal component analysis (PCA) and regression modeling – to investigate the association between workforce participation of elderly and subjective well-being (SWB). The results show that the percentage of elderly participating in the labor market is gradually reducing, but the share of working elderly has increased within the group of overall workers. i.e., the ratio of aged workers to non-aged workers is rising. The findings from survey data specify that there is a considerable share of the elderly in the labor market; three-fourths of the employed elderly enrolled the workforce unwillingly. They are in need of some earnings mainly to afford the medical expenses on their health or the health of their spouse, also to support their family members who are economically inactive. Apart from need, duration of working is another vital aspect for the elderly, whereas more than 80 percent of the elderly are working for six hours or more, and most of them engaged in self-employment. However, more than one-third of the working elderly falls into a negative cluster of the subjective well-being (SWB) index, and it is consistent with the result of the discriminant analysis. Here, the SWB index calculated from the 12 items and the reliability score of these items is 0.89.

Keywords: Ageing, Workforce, SAGE, census of India

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1 Emerging Issues of Non-Communicable Diseases among Older Persons in India

Authors: Dhananjay W. Bansod, Santosh Phad


Non-Communicable Diseases (NCD) are major contributing factors to the disease burden in the world as well as in India. With a growing proportion of older persons in India gives rise to several challenges. With the advancement of age, elderly is exposed to various kinds of health problems more specifically NCDs. Therefore, an effort has been made to examine the prevalence of NCDs among older persons and its treatment-seeking behaviour, also it is tried to explore the association between the NCDs and its effect on the overall wellbeing of older persons. Data used from “Building Knowledge Base of Population Ageing Survey” conducted in 2011 in seven states of India. Six chronic diseases used (non-communicable diseases) namely Arthritis, Hypertension, Cataract, Diabetes, Asthma and Heart diseases to understand the issues related to NCDs. Also seen the effect of NCDs on the wellbeing of the elderly, the subjective well-being consists of nine questions from which SUBI score generated for mental health status, which ranges from 9 to 27. This Index indicates that lower the score better is the mental health status. Further, this index modified and generated three categories of Better (9-15), Average (16-20) and Worse (21-27). The reliability analysis is carried out with the coefficient (Cronbach’s alpha) of the scale was 0.8884. The result shows that Orthopedic / musculoskeletal ailments involving arthritis, rheumatism and osteoarthritis are the most common type of ailment followed by hypertension. Two-thirds of the elderly reported suffering from at least one chronic ailment. Most chronic illness conditions received some form of treatment and mainly depend on public health facilities. Financial insecurity is the primary obstruction in seeking treatment for most of the chronic ailments which typically require a longer duration of medication and repeated medical consultations, both having significant economic implications. According to SUBI index, only 15 per cent of the elderly are in Better mental health status, and one-third of the elderly are with the worse score. Elderly with the ailments like Cataract, Asthma and Arthritis have worse mental health. It depicts that the burden of disease is more among the elderly and it is directly affecting the overall wellbeing of older persons.

Keywords: Well-being, India, older person, NCD

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