Alexandre Giacobbo


2 Reverse Osmosis Application on Sewage Tertiary Treatment

Authors: Elisa K. Schoenell, Cristiano De Oliveira, Luiz R. H. Dos Santos, Alexandre Giacobbo, Andréa M. Bernardes, Marco A. S. Rodrigues


Water is an indispensable natural resource, which must be preserved to human activities as well the ecosystems. However, the sewage discharge has been contaminating water resources. Conventional treatment, such as physicochemical treatment followed by biological processes, has not been efficient to the complete degradation of persistent organic compounds, such as medicines and hormones. Therefore, the use of advanced technologies to sewage treatment has become urgent and necessary. The aim of this study was to apply Reverse Osmosis (RO) on sewage tertiary treatment from a Waste Water Treatment Plant (WWTP) in south Brazil. It was collected 200 L of sewage pre-treated by wetland with aquatic macrophytes. The sewage was treated in a RO pilot plant, using a polyamide membrane BW30-4040 model (DOW FILMTEC), with 7.2 m² membrane area. In order to avoid damage to the equipment, this system contains a pleated polyester filter with 5 µm pore size. It was applied 8 bar until achieve 5 times of concentration, obtaining 80% of recovery of permeate, with 10 L.min-1 of concentrate flow rate. Samples of sewage pre-treated on WWTP, permeate and concentrate generated on RO was analyzed for physicochemical parameters and by gas chromatography (GC) to qualitative analysis of organic compounds. The results proved that the sewage treated on WWTP does not comply with the limit of phosphorus and nitrogen of Brazilian legislation. Besides this, it was found many organic compounds in this sewage, such as benzene, which is carcinogenic. Analyzing permeate results, it was verified that the RO as sewage tertiary treatment was efficient to remove of physicochemical parameters, achieving 100% of iron, copper, zinc and phosphorus removal, 98% of color removal, 91% of BOD and 62% of ammoniacal nitrogen. RO was capable of removing organic compounds, however, it was verified the presence of some organic compounds on de RO permeate, showing that RO did not have the capacity of removal all organic compounds of sewage. It has to be considered that permeate showed lower intensity of peaks in chromatogram in comparison to the sewage of WWTP. It is important to note that the concentrate generate on RO needs a treatment before its disposal in environment.

Keywords: Reverse osmosis, Sewage treatment, Organic Compounds, tertiary treatment

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1 Application of Typha domingensis Pers. in Artificial Floating for Sewage Treatment

Authors: Tatiane Benvenuti, Fernando Hamerski, Alexandre Giacobbo, Andrea M. Bernardes, Marco A. S. Rodrigues


Population growth in urban areas has caused damages to the environment, a consequence of the uncontrolled dumping of domestic and industrial wastewater. The capacity of some plants to purify domestic and agricultural wastewater has been demonstrated by several studies. Since natural wetlands have the ability to transform, retain and remove nutrients, constructed wetlands have been used for wastewater treatment. They are widely recognized as an economical, efficient and environmentally acceptable means of treating many different types of wastewater. T. domingensis Pers. species have shown a good performance and low deployment cost to extract, detoxify and sequester pollutants. Constructed Floating Wetlands (CFWs) consist of emergent vegetation established upon a buoyant structure, floating on surface waters. The upper parts of the vegetation grow and remain primarily above the water level, while the roots extend down in the water column, developing an extensive under water-level root system. Thus, the vegetation grows hydroponically, performing direct nutrient uptake from the water column. Biofilm is attached on the roots and rhizomes, and as physical and biochemical processes take place, the system functions as a natural filter. The aim of this study is to diagnose the application of macrophytes in artificial floating in the treatment of domestic sewage in south Brazil. The T. domingensis Pers. plants were placed in a flotation system (polymer structure), in full scale, in a sewage treatment plant. The sewage feed rate was 67.4 m³.d⁻¹ ± 8.0, and the hydraulic retention time was 11.5 d ± 1.3. This CFW treat the sewage generated by 600 inhabitants, which corresponds to 12% of the population served by this municipal treatment plant. During 12 months, samples were collected every two weeks, in order to evaluate parameters as chemical oxygen demand (COD), biochemical oxygen demand in 5 days (BOD5), total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN), total phosphorus, total solids, and metals. The average removal of organic matter was around 55% for both COD and BOD5. For nutrients, TKN was reduced in 45.9% what was similar to the total phosphorus removal, while for total solids the reduction was 33%. For metals, aluminum, copper, and cadmium, besides in low concentrations, presented the highest percentage reduction, 82.7, 74.4 and 68.8% respectively. Chromium, iron, and manganese removal achieved values around 40-55%. The use of T. domingensis Pers. in artificial floating for sewage treatment is an effective and innovative alternative in Brazilian sewage treatment systems. The evaluation of additional parameters in the treatment system may give useful information in order to improve the removal efficiency and increase the quality of the water bodies.

Keywords: Sewage treatment, constructed wetland, floating system, Typha domingensis Pers

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