Arunporn Itharat

Abstracts

11 Regulation of Apoptosis in Human Lung Cancer NCI-H226 Cells through Caspase – Dependent Mechanism by Benjakul Extract

Authors: Pintusorn Hansakul, Ruchilak Rattarom, Arunporn Itharat

Abstract:

Background: Benjakul, a Thai traditional herbal formulation, comprises of five plants: Piper chaba, Piper sarmentosum, Piper interruptum, Plumbago indica, and Zingiber officinale. It has been widely used to treat cancer patients in the context of folk medicine in Thailand. This study aimed to investigate the cytotoxic effect of the ethanol extract of Benjakul against three non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell lines (NCI-H226, A549, COR-L23), small cell lung cancer (SCLC) cell line NCI-H1688 and normal lung fibroblast cell line MRC-5. The study further examined the molecular mechanisms underlying its cytotoxicity via induction of apoptosis in NCI-H226 cells. Methods: The cytotoxic effect of Benjakul was determined by SRB assay. The effect of Benjakul on cell cycle distribution was assessed by flow cytometric analysis. The apoptotic effects of Benjakul were determined by sub-G1 quantitation and Annexin V-FITC/PI flow cytometric analyses as well as by changes in caspase-3 activity. Results: Benjakul exerted potent cytotoxicity on NCI-H226 and A549 cells but lower cytotoxicity on COR-L23 and NCI-H1688 cells without any cytotoxic effect on normal cells. Molecular studies showed that Benjakul extract induced G2/M phase arrest in human NCI-H226 cells in a dose-dependent manner. The highest concentration of Benjakul (150 μg/ml) led to the highest increase in the G2/M population at 12 h, followed by the highest increase in the sub-G1 population (apoptotic cells) at 60 h. Benjakul extract also induced early apoptosis (AnnexinV +/PI−) in NCI-H226 cells in a dose- and time- dependent manner. Moreover, treatment with 150 μg/ml Benjakul extract for 36 h markedly increased caspase-3 activity by 3.5-fold, and pretreatment with the general caspase inhibitor z-VAD-fmk completely abolished such activity. Conclusions: This study reveals for the first time the regulation of apoptosis in human lung cancer NCI-H226 cells through caspase-dependent mechanism by Benjakul extract.

Keywords: apoptosis, Cytotoxicity, Benjakul, caspase activation

Procedia PDF Downloads 304
10 Anti-inflammatory and Antioxidant Activity of Heliotropium indicum Linn. Used for Cancer Patients Treatment

Authors: Jitpisute Chunthorng-Orn, Thana Juckmeta, Onmanee Prajuabjinda, Arunporn Itharat

Abstract:

Inflammation and oxidative stress work together to produce symptoms in cancer patients. The whole part of it is used as a preparation to treat cancer patients in Khampramong temple which has been a place of treatment and palliative care for cancer patients since 2005. Thus, the objective of this study was to investigate anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities of Heliotropium indicum extracts. Dried plant materials were extracted in a similar manner to those practiced by the Khampramong Temple i.e. maceration in 95% ethanol and boiling in water. For anti-inflammation activity, both extracts were tested for suppression of nitric oxide (NO) production in LPS-induced RAW 264.7 cells. They were also tested for antioxidant activity by DPPH radical scavenging assay. This study found that the ethanolic extract of Heliotropium indicum exhibited higher inhibitory activity of NO release than Indomethacin as a positive control (IC50 value of 24.17±2.12 and 34.67±6.23 μg/mL, respectively). For DPPH radical scavenging assay, the ethanolic extract also exhibited antioxidant activity but less than BHT as a antioxidant compound (EC50 values = 28.91±4.26 and 13.08±0.29 μg/mL, respectively). In contrast, its water extract had no inhibitory activity on NO release (IC50 > 100 μg/mL) and no inhibitory activity on DPPH radicals (EC50 values > 100 μg/mL). The results showed correlation between anti-inflammation and antioxidant activity and these results also support using this plant to treat cancer patients.

Keywords: DPPH, Heliotropium indicum, RAW 264.7, Khampramong Temple

Procedia PDF Downloads 343
9 Isolation of Cytotoxic Compound from Tectona grandis Stem to Be Used as Thai Medicinal Preparation for Cancer Treatment

Authors: Onmanee Prajuabjinda, Pakakrong Thondeeying, Jipisute Chunthorng-Orn, Bhanuz Dechayont, Arunporn Itharat

Abstract:

A Thai medicinal preparation has been used for cancer treatment more than ten years ago in Khampramong Temple. Tectona grandis stem is one ingredient of this Thai medicinal remedy. The ethanolic extract of Tectona grandis stem showed the highest cytotoxic activities against human breast adenocarcinoma (MCF-7), but was less cytotoxic against large cell lung carcinoma (COR-L23) (IC50 = 3.92 and 7.78 µg/ml, respectively). It was isolated by bioassay-guided isolation method. Tectoquinone, a anthraquinone compound was isolated from this plant. This compound showed high specific cytotoxicity against human breast adenocarcinoma (MCF-7), but was less cytotoxic against large cell lung carcinoma (COR-L23)(IC50 =16.15 and 47.56 µg/ml or 72.67 and 214.00 µM, respectively). However, it showed less cytotoxic activity than the crude extract. In conclusion, tectoquinone as a main compound, is not the best cytotoxic compound from Tectona grandis, so there are more active cytotoxic compounds in this extract which should be isolated in the future. Moreover, tectoquinone displayed specific cytotoxicity against only human breast adenocarcinoma (MCF-7) which is a good criterion for cancer treatment.

Keywords: Cytotoxicity, Tectona grandis, SRB assay, tectoquinone

Procedia PDF Downloads 311
8 Cytotoxic Activity of Parkia javanica Merr. and Parkia speciosa Hassk. against Human Cancer Cell Lines

Authors: Srisopa Ruangnoo, Arunporn Itharat

Abstract:

The ethanolic and aqueous extracts of Parkia javanica Merr. germinating seeds and Parkia speciosa Hassk. seeds were evaluated for cytotoxic activity against three different types of human cancer cell lines including colon cancer (LS174T), breast cancer (MCF-7) and prostate cancer (PC3) using sulforhodamine B (SRB) assay. The fresh plant parts were divided into 2 parts. The first part was extracted by maceration with 95% ethanol for 3 days and then filtered, and the filtrates were evaporated by rotary evaporator. The other part was squeezed and filtered. Then the filtrates were dried by freeze dryer. The screening found that the aqueous extract of P. javanica Merr. germinating seeds exhibited more than 70% inhibition (at concentration 50 µg/ml) against all types of human cancer cells. The aqueous extract of P. javanica Merr. germinating seeds showed the highest cytotoxic activity against MCF-7 with the IC50 value as 5.63 µg/ml. The aqueous extract of P. javanica Merr. germinating seeds also showed high cytotoxic activity against PC3 and LS174T with the IC50 values as 10.79 and 11.40 µg/ml, respectively. In conclusion, P. javanica Merr. germinating seed is a natural source of anticancer activity and further research to isolate active compounds from this plant should be undertaken.

Keywords: human cancer cell lines, cytotoxic activity, Parkia javanica Merr, Parkia speciosa Hassk

Procedia PDF Downloads 290
7 Cytotoxic Activity of Extracts from Hibiscus sabdariffa Leaves against Women’s Cancer Cell Lines

Authors: Patsorn Worawattananutai, Srisopa Ruangnoo, Arunporn Itharat

Abstract:

Hibiscus sabdariffa (HS) leaves are vegetables which are extensively used as blood tonic and laxatives in Thai traditional medicine. They are popularly used as healthy sour soup for prevention of chronic diseases such as cancer. Therefore, the cytotoxic activity of different extracts of fresh and dried Hibiscus sabdariffa leaves were investigated via the sulforhodamine B (SRB) assay against three types of women’s cancer cell lines, namely the human cervical adenocarcinoma cell line (HeLa), the human ovarian adenocarcinoma cell line (SKOV-3), and the human breast adenocarcinoma cell line (MCF-7). Extraction methods were squeezing, boiling with water and maceration with 95% or 50% ethanol. The 95% ethanolic extracts of Hibiscus sabdariffa dry leaves (HSDE95) showed the highest cytotoxicity against all types of women’s cancer cell lines with the IC50 values in range 7.51±0.33 to 12.13±1.85 µg/ml. Its IC50 values against SKOV-3, HeLa and MCF-7 were 7.51±0.33, 9.44±1.41 and 12.13±1.85 µg/ml, respectively. In these results, this extract can be classified as “active” according to the NCI guideline which indicated that IC50 values of the active cytotoxic plant extracts have to be beneath 20 µg/ml. Thus, HSDE95 was concluded to be a potent cytotoxic drug for all women’s cancer cells. This extract should be further investigated to isolate active compounds against women’s cancer cells.

Keywords: cytotoxic activity, breast adenocarcinoma, cervical adenocarcinoma, Hibiscus sabdariffa, ovarian adenocarcinoma

Procedia PDF Downloads 443
6 Cytotoxicity of Flavonoid Compounds from Smilax corbularia Kunth Against Cholangiocarcinoma Cell Line

Authors: Pakakrong Thongdeeying, Srisopa Ruangnoo, Arunporn Itharat

Abstract:

The rhizomes of Smilax corbularia Kunth have long been used as common ingredients in anticancer preparations. Thus, the objective of this study is to investigate cytotoxicity of S. corbularia and its ingredients against cholangiocarcinoma cell line (KKU-M156) by SRB assay. Ethanolic and water extracts of S. corbularia rhizomes were obtained using the procedures followed by Thai traditional doctors. Bioassay guided isolation was used to isolate cytotoxic compounds. The results revealed that the ethanolic extract of S. corbularia exhibited activity against KKU-M156 cell line with an IC50 value of 84.53±1.62 µg/ml, but the water extract showed no cytotoxic activity. Three flavonoid compounds [astilbin (1), engeletin (2), and quercetin (3)] were isolated from the ethanolic extract. Compound 3 exhibited the strongest activity against KKU-M156 cell line (IC50 = 8.14 ± 1.15 µg/ml), but 1 and 2 showed no cytotoxic activity (IC50 > 100 µg/ml). In conclusion, quercetin showed the highest efficacy against cholangiocarcinoma. These results support the traditional use of this plant by Thai traditional doctors for cancer treatment.

Keywords: Cytotoxicity, flavonoid, cholangiocarcinoma, Smilax corbularia

Procedia PDF Downloads 242
5 The Anti-Allergic Activity of Prasaprohyai Preparation Extract after Accelerated Stability Testing

Authors: Sunita Makchuchit, Arunporn Itharat

Abstract:

Prasaprohyai, a Thai traditional medicine preparation listed in the Thai National List of Essential Medicines, is commonly used for treatment of fever and colds. Prasaprohyai preparation consists of 21 different plants, with Kaempferia galanga (50% w/w) as the main ingredient. The objective of this study was to investigate the anti-allergic activity of the crude extract from Prasaprohyai after accelerated stability test procedure. The method of extract used maceration in 95% ethanol and the crude extract was kept under accelerated condition at 40 ± 2 oC and 75 ± 5% relative humidity (RH) for six months. After six months of storage at 40 oC, the crude sample in various storage times (0, 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, 120, 150 and 180 days) were investigated for anti-allergic activity using IgE-sensitized RBL-2H3 cell lines. The results showed that the stability of crude ethanolic extract from Prasaprohyai under accelerated testing had no significant effect of anti-allergic activity when compared with day 0. The results showed that the ethanolic extract could be stored for two years at room temperature without loss of activity.

Keywords: accelerated stability, anti-allergy, prasaprohyai, RBL-2H3 cell lines

Procedia PDF Downloads 268
4 Cytotoxic Activity against Hepatocarcinoma and Cholangiocarcinoma Cells of Four Cathartic Herbal Medicines

Authors: Pranporn Kuropakornpong, Srisopa Ruangnoo, Arunporn Itharat

Abstract:

Liver cancer has the highest prevalence rate in the North and Northeast of Thailand. Four Thai medicinal plants such as resin of Ferula asafoetida Regel, latex of Aloe barbadensis Miller leaves, roots of Baliospermum manotanum, and latex of Garcinia hanburyi Hook are used in Thai traditional medicine as cathartic drug and detoxification in liver cancer patients. Thus, this research aimed to evaluate the cytotoxic activity of these plants against hepatocarcinoma (HepG2) and cholangiocarcinoma (KKU-M156) cells by SRB assay. These plants were macerated in 95% ethanol. The results showed that roots of Baliospermum manotanum and latex of Garcinia hanburyi Hook showed the strongest cytotoxicity against HepG2 (IC50 = 3.03+0.91 and 0.62+0.01µg/ml, respectively) and KKU-M156 (IC50 = 0.978+0.663 and 0.006+0.005 µg/ml, respectively). Latex of Garcinia hanburyi Hook also showed high cytotoxicity against normal cell line (IC50=8.86+0.31 µg/ml), and even though its selective values are high, dose of this herb should be limited.

Keywords: cytotoxic activity, cholangiocarcinoma, Garcinia hanburyi Hook, hepatocarcinoma

Procedia PDF Downloads 304
3 Inhibitory Effect on TNF-Alpha Release of Dioscorea membranacea and Its Compounds

Authors: Arunporn Itharat, Srisopa Ruangnoo, Pakakrong Thongdeeying

Abstract:

The rhizomes of Dioscorea membranacea (DM) has long been used in Thai Traditional medicine to treat cancer and inflammatory conditions such as rheumatism. The objective of this study was to investigate anti-inflammatory activity by determining the inhibitory effect on LPS-induced TNF-α from RAW264.7 cells of crude extracts and pure isolated compounds from DM. Three known dihydrophenantrene compounds were isolated by a bioassay guided isolation method from DM ethanolic extract [2,4 dimethoxy-5,6-dihydroxy-9,10-dihydrophenanthrene (1) and 5-hydroxy-2,4,6-trimethoxy-9,10-dihydrophenanthrene(2) and 5,6,2 -trihydroxy 3,4-methoxy, 9,10- dihydrophenanthrene (3)]. 1 showed the highest inhibitory effect on PGE2, followed by 3 and 1 (IC50 = 2.26, 4.97 and >20 μg/ml or 8.31,17.25 and > 20 µM respectively). These findings suggest that this plant showed anti-inflamatory effects by displaying an inhibitory effect on TNF-α release, hence, this result supports the usage of Thai traditional medicine to treat inflammation related diseases.

Keywords: anti-inflammatory activity, Dioscorea membranacea, TNF-Alpha, dihidrophenantrene compound

Procedia PDF Downloads 372
2 In Vitro Antioxidant and Cytotoxic Activities Against Human Oral Cancer and Human Laryngeal Cancer of Limonia acidissima L. Bark Extracts

Authors: Kriyapa lairungruang, Arunporn Itharat

Abstract:

Limonia acidissima L. (LA) (Common name: wood apple, Thai name: ma-khwit) is a medicinal plant which has long been used in Thai traditional medicine. Its bark is used for treatment of diarrhea, abscess, wound healing and inflammation and it is also used in oral cancer. Thus, this research aimed to investigate antioxidant and cytotoxic activities of the LA bark extracts produced by various extraction methods. Different extraction procedures were used to extract LA bark for biological activity testing: boiling in water, maceration with 95% ethanol, maceration with 50% ethanol and water boiling of each the 95% and the 50% ethanolic residues. All extracts were tested for antioxidant activity using DPPH radical scavenging assay, cytotoxic activity against human laryngeal epidermoid carcinoma (HEp-2) cells and human oral epidermoid carcinoma (KB) cells using sulforhodamine B (SRB) assay. The results found that the 95% ethanolic extract of LA bark showed the highest antioxidant activity with EC50 values of 29.76±1.88 µg/ml. For cytotoxic activity, the 50% ethanolic extract showed the best cytotoxic activity against HEp-2 and KB cells with IC50 values of 9.55±1.68 and 18.90±0.86 µg/ml, respectively. This study demonstrated that the 95% ethanolic extract of LA bark showed moderate antioxidant activity and the 50% ethanolic extract provided potent cytotoxic activity against HEp-2 and KB cells. These results confirm the traditional use of LA for the treatment of oral cancer and laryngeal cancer, and also support its ongoing use.

Keywords: antioxidant activity, cytotoxic activity, Laryngeal epidermoid carcinoma, Limonia acidissima L, oral epidermoid carcinoma

Procedia PDF Downloads 353
1 Anti-Allergic Activities of Smilax Glabra Rhizome Extracts and Its Isolated Compounds

Authors: Arunporn Itharat, Kamonmas Srikwan, Srisopa Ruangnoo, Pakakrong Thongdeeying

Abstract:

Background: The rhizomes of Smilax glabra (SG) has long been used in Traditional Chinese and Thai herbal medicine to treat a variety of infectious diseases and immunological disorders. Objective: To investigate the in vitro anti-allergic activities of crude extracts and pure isolated flavonoid compounds from SG by determination of inhibitory effects on antigen-induced release of β-hexosaminidase from RBL-2H3 cells. Methods: The in vitro inhibitory effects of crude aqueous and organic extracts on beta-hexosaminidase release in RBL-2H3 cells were evaluated as an in vitro indication of possible anti-allergic activity in vivo. Bioassay-guided fractionation of extracts was used to isolate flavonoid compounds from the ethanolic extracts. Results: The 95% and 50% ethanolic extracts of SG showed remarkably high anti-allergic activity, with IC50 values of 5.74 ± 2.44 and 23.54 ± 4.75 μg/ml, much higher activity than that for Ketotifen (IC50 58.90 μM). The water extract had negligible activity (IC50 > 100 μg/ml). The two isolated flavonols, Engeletin and Astilbin, showed weak anti-allergic activity, IC50 values 97.46 ± 2.04 and > 100 μg/ml, respectively. Conclusions: The 95% and 50% ethanolic extracts of SG showed strong anti-allergic activity but two flavonol constituents did not show any significant anti-allergic activity. These findings suggest that a combination of effects of various phytochemicals in crude extracts used in traditional medicine are responsible for the purported anti-allergic activity of SG herbal preparations. The plethora of constituents in crude extracts, as yet unidentified, are likely to be acting synergistically to account for the strong observed anti-allergic in vitro activity.

Keywords: Smilax glabra, anti-allergic activity, RBL-2H3 cells, flavonoid compounds

Procedia PDF Downloads 369