M. P. S. Tomar


3 Gross Morphological Study on Heart of Yellow Bellied Sea Snake

Authors: M. P. S. Tomar, Jonnalagadda Naveen, Putluru Satish, Palanisamy Dharani


Present investigation was carried out on a single specimen of the heart of yellow-bellied sea snake, which accidentally came to the seashore with the fisherman’s net. After the death, these specimens was preserved in 10% neutral buffered formalin and observe for its morphology. The literature cited revealed that meager information was available on the anatomy of the heart of this species of snake thus present study was planned on the gross anatomy of the heart of yellow-bellied sea snake. The heart of yellow-bellied sea snake was located between 28-35th rib in an oblique direction in the pericardial sac. It was three chambered with the complete division of atria but the ventricular cavity was incompletely divided. The apex did not show any gubernaculum cordis. The sinus venosus was the common cavity for confluence of anterior and posterior vana cava and the jugular vein was opened with anterior vena cava. The opening of posterior vena cava was slit-like and it was guarded by membranous valves whereas no valve could be observed at the opening of anterior vana cava and the jugular vein. Both the caval veins ran along the right border of the heart. Pulmonary vein was single which later divided into two branches. The length-width index for the atria was 1.33 whereas it was 1.67 for the ventricle. The atrioventricular canal was situated slightly towards the left of the midline of the heart and was divided into a right cavum pulmonale and left cavum arteriosum of which the right one was slightly larger and longer than the left. The cavum venosum was present in between the cavum pulmonale and the cavum arteriosum. The Ventricle was elongated triangle muscular compartment with ventrally located apex. Internally the cavity of ventricle was divided into two partial chambers dorsally by a muscular ridge and ventrally by an incomplete inter ventricular septum.

Keywords: heart, aorta, atrium, sinus venosus, ventricle, sea snake

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2 Light and Scanning Electron Microscopic Studies on Corneal Ontogeny in Buffalo

Authors: M. P. S. Tomar, Neelam Bansal


Histomorphological, histochemical and scanning electron microscopic observations were recorded in developing cornea of buffalo fetuses. The samples from fetal cornea were collected in appropriate fixative from slaughter house and Veterinary Clinics, GADVASU, Ludhiana. The microscopic slides were stained for detailed histomorphological and histochemical studies. The scanning electron microscopic studies were performed at Electron microscopy & Nanobiology Lab, PAU Ludhiana. In present study, it was observed that, in 36 days (d) fetus, the corneal epithelium was well marked single layered structure which was placed on stroma mesenchyme. Cornea appeared as the continuation of developing sclera. The thickness of cornea and its epithelium increased as well as the epithelium started becoming double layered in 47d fetus at corneo-scleral junction. The corneal thickness in this stage suddenly increased thus easily distinguished from developing sclera. The separation of corneal endothelium from stroma was evident as a single layered epithelium. The stroma possessed numerous fibroblasts in 49d stage eye. Descemet’s membrane was appeared at 52d stage. The limbus area was separated by a depression from the developing cornea in 61d stage. In 65d stage, the Bowman’s layer was more developed. Fibroblasts were arranged parallel to each other as well as parallel to the surface of developing cornea in superficial layers. These fibroblasts and fibers were arranged in wavy pattern in the center of stroma. Corneal epithelium started to be stratified as a double layered epithelium was present in this age of fetal eye. In group II (>120 Days), the corneal epithelium was stratified towards a well marked irido-corneal angle. The stromal fibroblasts followed a complete parallel arrangement in its entire thickness. In full term fetuses, a well developed cornea was observed. It was a fibrous layer which had five distinct layers. From outside to inwards were described as the outer most layer was the 7-8 layered corneal epithelial, subepithelial basement membrane (Bowman’s membrane), substantia propria or stroma, posterior limiting membrane (Descemet’s membrane) and the posterior epithelium (corneal endothelium). The corneal thickness and connective tissue elements were continued to be increased. It was 121.39 + 3.73µ at 36d stage which increased to 518.47 + 4.98 µ in group III fetuses. In fetal life, the basement membrane of corneal epithelium and endothelium depicted strong to intense periodic Acid Schiff’s (PAS) reaction. At the irido-corneal angle, the endothelium of blood vessels was also positive for PAS activity. However, cornea was found mild positive for alcian blue reaction. The developing cornea showed strong reaction for basic proteins in outer epithelium and the inner endothelium layers. Under low magnification scanning electron microscope, cornea showed two types of cells viz. light cells and dark cells. The light cells were smaller in size and had less number of microvilli in their surface than in the dark cells. Despite these surface differences between light and dark cells, the corneal surface showed the same general pattern of microvilli studding all exposed surfaces out to the cell margin. which were long (with variable height), slight tortuous slender and possessed a micro villus shaft with a very prominent knob.

Keywords: Cornea, Scanning Electron Microscopy, ontogeny, buffalo, fetus, eye

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1 Avian Esophagus: A Comparative Microscopic Study In Birds With Different Feeding Habits

Authors: M. P. S. Tomar, Himanshu R. Joshi, P. Jagapathi Ramayya, Rakhi Vaish, A. B. Shrivastav


The morphology of an organ system varies according to the feeding habit, habitat and nature of their life-style. This phenomenon is called adaptation. During evolution these morphological changes make the system species specific so the study on the differential characteristics of them makes the understanding regarding the morpho-physiological adaptation easier. Hence the present study was conducted on esophagus of pariah kite, median egret, goshawk, dove and duck. Esophagus in all birds was comprised of four layers viz. Tunica mucosa, Tunica submucosa, Tunica muscularis and Tunica adventitia. The mucosa of esophagus showed longitudinal folds thus the lumen was irregular. The epithelium was stratified squamous in all birds but in Median egret the cells were large and vacuolated. Among these species very thick epithelium was observed in goshawk and duck but keratinization was highest in dove. The stratum spongiosum was 7-8 layers thick in both Pariah kite and Goshawk. In all birds, the glands were alveolar mucous secreting type. In Median egret and Pariah kite, these were round or oval in shape and with or without lumen depending upon the functional status whereas in Goshawk the shape of the glands varied from spherical / oval to triangular with openings towards the lumen according to the functional activity and in dove these glands were oval in shape. The glands were numerous in number in egret while one or two in each fold in goshawk and less numerous in other three species. The core of the mucosal folds was occupied by the lamina propria and showed large number of collagen fibers and cellular infiltration in pariah kite, egret and dove where as in goshawk and duck, collagen and reticular fibers were fewer and cellular infiltration was lesser. Lamina muscularis was very thick in all species and it was comprised of longitudinally arranged smooth muscle fibers. In Median egret, it was in wavy pattern. Tunica submucosa was very thin in all species. Tunica muscularis was mostly comprised of circular smooth muscle bundles in all species but the longitudinal bundles were very few in number and not continuous. The tunica adventitia was comprised of loose connective tissue fibers containing collagen and elastic fibers with numerous small blood vessels in all species. Further, it was observed that the structure of esophagus in birds varies according to their feeding habits.

Keywords: Esophagus, dove, duck, egret, goshawk, kite

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