Sanja Podunavac-Kuzmanović

Abstracts

15 Chemometric Regression Analysis of Radical Scavenging Ability of Kombucha Fermented Kefir-Like Products

Authors: Strahinja Kovacevic, Milica Karadzic Banjac, Jasmina Vitas, Stefan Vukmanovic, Radomir Malbasa, Lidija Jevric, Sanja Podunavac-Kuzmanovic

Abstract:

The present study deals with chemometric regression analysis of quality parameters and the radical scavenging ability of kombucha fermented kefir-like products obtained with winter savory (WS), peppermint (P), stinging nettle (SN) and wild thyme tea (WT) kombucha inoculums. Each analyzed sample was described by milk fat content (MF, %), total unsaturated fatty acids content (TUFA, %), monounsaturated fatty acids content (MUFA, %), polyunsaturated fatty acids content (PUFA, %), the ability of free radicals scavenging (RSA Dₚₚₕ, % and RSA.ₒₕ, %) and pH values measured after each hour from the start until the end of fermentation. The aim of the conducted regression analysis was to establish chemometric models which can predict the radical scavenging ability (RSA Dₚₚₕ, % and RSA.ₒₕ, %) of the samples by correlating it with the MF, TUFA, MUFA, PUFA and the pH value at the beginning, in the middle and at the end of fermentation process which lasted between 11 and 17 hours, until pH value of 4.5 was reached. The analysis was carried out applying univariate linear (ULR) and multiple linear regression (MLR) methods on the raw data and the data standardized by the min-max normalization method. The obtained models were characterized by very limited prediction power (poor cross-validation parameters) and weak statistical characteristics. Based on the conducted analysis it can be concluded that the resulting radical scavenging ability cannot be precisely predicted only on the basis of MF, TUFA, MUFA, PUFA content, and pH values, however, other quality parameters should be considered and included in the further modeling. This study is based upon work from project: Kombucha beverages production using alternative substrates from the territory of the Autonomous Province of Vojvodina, 142-451-2400/2019-03, supported by Provincial Secretariat for Higher Education and Scientific Research of AP Vojvodina.

Keywords: Quality Control, Chemometrics, Regression analysis, kombucha

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14 Extraction and Encapsulation of Carotenoids from Carrot

Authors: Gordana Ćetković, Sanja Podunavac-Kuzmanović, Jasna Čanadanović-Brunet, Vesna Tumbas Šaponjac, Vanja Šeregelj, Jelena Vulić, Slađana Stajčić

Abstract:

The color of food is one of the decisive factors for consumers. Potential toxicity of artificial food colorants has led to the consumers' preference for natural products over products with artificial colors. Natural pigments have many bioactive functions, such as antioxidant, provitamin and many other. Having this in mind, the acceptability of natural colorants by the consumers is much higher. Being present in all photosynthetic plant tissues carotenoids are probably most widespread pigments in nature. Carrot (Daucus carota) is a good source of functional food components. Carrot is especially rich in carotenoids, mainly α- and β-carotene and lutein. For this study, carrot was extracted using classical extraction with hexane and ethyl acetate, as well as supercritical CO₂ extraction. The extraction efficiency was evaluated by estimation of carotenoid yield determined spectrophotometrically. Classical extraction using hexane (18.27 mg β-carotene/100 g DM) was the most efficient method for isolation of carotenoids, compared to ethyl acetate classical extraction (15.73 mg β-carotene/100 g DM) and supercritical CO₂ extraction (0.19 mg β-carotene/100 g DM). Three carrot extracts were tested in terms of antioxidant activity using DPPH and reducing power assay as well. Surprisingly, ethyl acetate extract had the best antioxidant activity on DPPH radicals (AADPPH=120.07 μmol TE/100 g) while hexane extract showed the best reducing power (RP=1494.97 μmol TE/100 g). Hexane extract was chosen as the most potent source of carotenoids and was encapsulated in whey protein by freeze-drying. Carotenoid encapsulation efficiency was found to be high (89.33%). Based on our results it can be concluded that carotenoids from carrot can be efficiently extracted using hexane and classical extraction method. This extract has the potential to be applied in encapsulated form due to high encapsulation efficiency and coloring capacity. Therefore it can be used for dietary supplements development and food fortification.

Keywords: Extraction, Carotenoids, encapsulation, carrot

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13 Hierarchical Cluster Analysis of Raw Milk Samples Obtained from Organic and Conventional Dairy Farming in Autonomous Province of Vojvodina, Serbia

Authors: Lidija Jevrić, Denis Kučević, Sanja Podunavac-Kuzmanović, Strahinja Kovačević, Milica Karadžić

Abstract:

In the present study, the Hierarchical Cluster Analysis (HCA) was applied in order to determine the differences between the milk samples originating from a conventional dairy farm (CF) and an organic dairy farm (OF) in AP Vojvodina, Republic of Serbia. The clustering was based on the basis of the average values of saturated fatty acids (SFA) content and unsaturated fatty acids (UFA) content obtained for every season. Therefore, the HCA included the annual SFA and UFA content values. The clustering procedure was carried out on the basis of Euclidean distances and Single linkage algorithm. The obtained dendrograms indicated that the clustering of UFA in OF was much more uniform compared to clustering of UFA in CF. In OF, spring stands out from the other months of the year. The same case can be noticed for CF, where winter is separated from the other months. The results could be expected because the composition of fatty acids content is greatly influenced by the season and nutrition of dairy cows during the year.

Keywords: Food Engineering, Clustering, Chemometrics, milk quality

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12 Chemometric Analysis of Raw Milk Quality Originating from Conventional and Organic Dairy Farming in AP Vojvodina, Serbia

Authors: Sanja Podunavac-Kuzmanović, Denis Kučević, Strahinja Kovačević, Milica Karadžić, Lidija Jevrić

Abstract:

The present study describes the application of chemometric methods in analysis of milk samples which were collected in a conventional dairy farm and an organic dairy farm in AP Vojvodina, Republic of Serbia. The chemometric analysis included the application of univariate regression modeling and Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) method. The ANOVA was used in order to determine the differences in fatty acids content in the milk samples from conventional and organic farm. The results of the ANOVA testing indicate that there is a highly statistically significant difference between the content of fatty acid (saturated fatty acid vs. unsaturated fatty acids) in different dairy farming. Besides, the linear univariate models have been obtained as a result of modeling the linear relationships between the milk fat content and saturated fatty acids content, and the linear relationships between the milk fat content and unsaturated fatty acids content. The models obtained on the basis of the milk samples which originate from the organic farming are statistically better than the models based on the milk samples from conventional farming.

Keywords: Quality Control, Organic Farming, Milk, hemometrics

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11 Microbiological Activity and Molecular Docking Study of Selected Steroid Derivatives of Biomedical Importance

Authors: Milica Karadzic, Lidija Jevric, Sanja Podunavac-Kuzmanovic, Strahinja Kovacevic, Sinisa Markov, Aleksandar Okljesa, Andrea Nikolic, Marija Sakac, Katarina Penov Gasi

Abstract:

This study considered the microbiological activity determination and molecular docking study for selected steroid derivatives of biomedical importance. Minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined for steroid derivatives against Staphylococcus aureus using macrodilution method. Some of the investigated steroid derivatives express bacteriostatic effect against Staphylococcus aureus. Molecular docking approaches are the most widely used techniques for predicting the binding mode of a ligand. Molecular docking study was done for steroid derivatives for androgen receptor negative prostate cancer cell line (PC-3) toward Human Cytochrome P450 CYP17A1. The molecules that had the smallest experimental IC50 values confirmed their ability to dock into active place using suitable molecular docking procedure. The binding disposition of those molecules was thoroughly investigated. Microbiological analysis and molecular docking study were conducted with aim to additionally characterize selected steroid derivatives for future investigation regarding their biological activity and to estimate the binding-affinities of investigated derivatives. This article is based upon work from COST Action (TD1305), supported by COST (European Cooperation and Science and Technology).

Keywords: Molecular Docking, Steroids, Staphylococcus aureus, binding affinity, minimal inhibitory concentration, pc-3 cell line

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10 Non-Linear Assessment of Chromatographic Lipophilicity of Selected Steroid Derivatives

Authors: Milica Karadžić, Lidija Jevrić, Sanja Podunavac-Kuzmanović, Strahinja Kovačević, Anamarija Mandić, Aleksandar Oklješa, Andrea Nikolić, Marija Sakač, Katarina Penov Gaši

Abstract:

Using chemometric approach, the relationships between the chromatographic lipophilicity and in silico molecular descriptors for twenty-nine selected steroid derivatives were studied. The chromatographic lipophilicity was predicted using artificial neural networks (ANNs) method. The most important in silico molecular descriptors were selected applying stepwise selection (SS) paired with partial least squares (PLS) method. Molecular descriptors with satisfactory variable importance in projection (VIP) values were selected for ANN modeling. The usefulness of generated models was confirmed by detailed statistical validation. High agreement between experimental and predicted values indicated that obtained models have good quality and high predictive ability. Global sensitivity analysis (GSA) confirmed the importance of each molecular descriptor used as an input variable. High-quality networks indicate a strong non-linear relationship between chromatographic lipophilicity and used in silico molecular descriptors. Applying selected molecular descriptors and generated ANNs the good prediction of chromatographic lipophilicity of the studied steroid derivatives can be obtained. This article is based upon work from COST Actions (CM1306 and CA15222), supported by COST (European Cooperation and Science and Technology).

Keywords: Artificial Neural Networks, Chemometrics, Steroids, liquid chromatography, global sensitivity analysis

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9 Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship Analysis of Binding Affinity of a Series of Anti-Prion Compounds to Human Prion Protein

Authors: Strahinja Kovačević, Sanja Podunavac-Kuzmanović, Lidija Jevrić, Milica Karadžić

Abstract:

The present study is based on the quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) analysis of eighteen compounds with anti-prion activity. The structures and anti-prion activities (expressed in response units, RU%) of the analyzed compounds are taken from CHEMBL database. In the first step of analysis 85 molecular descriptors were calculated and based on them the hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) and principal component analysis (PCA) were carried out in order to detect potential significant similarities or dissimilarities among the studied compounds. The calculated molecular descriptors were physicochemical, lipophilicity and ADMET (absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion and toxicity) descriptors. The first stage of the QSAR analysis was simple linear regression modeling. It resulted in one acceptable model that correlates Henry's law constant with RU% units. The obtained 2D-QSAR model was validated by cross-validation as an internal validation method. The validation procedure confirmed the model’s quality and therefore it can be used for prediction of anti-prion activity. The next stage of the analysis of anti-prion activity will include 3D-QSAR and molecular docking approaches in order to select the most promising compounds in treatment of prion diseases. These results are the part of the project No. 114-451-268/2016-02 financially supported by the Provincial Secretariat for Science and Technological Development of AP Vojvodina.

Keywords: Molecular Modeling, Chemometrics, QSAR, anti-prion activity

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8 Non-Linear Assessment of Chromatographic Lipophilicity and Model Ranking of Newly Synthesized Steroid Derivatives

Authors: Milica Karadzic, Lidija Jevric, Sanja Podunavac-Kuzmanovic, Strahinja Kovacevic, Anamarija Mandic, Katarina Penov Gasi, Marija Sakac, Aleksandar Okljesa, Andrea Nikolic

Abstract:

The present paper deals with chromatographic lipophilicity prediction of newly synthesized steroid derivatives. The prediction was achieved using in silico generated molecular descriptors and quantitative structure-retention relationship (QSRR) methodology with the artificial neural networks (ANN) approach. Chromatographic lipophilicity of the investigated compounds was expressed as retention factor value logk. For QSRR modeling, a feedforward back-propagation ANN with gradient descent learning algorithm was applied. Using the novel sum of ranking differences (SRD) method generated ANN models were ranked. The aim was to distinguish the most consistent QSRR model that can be found, and similarity or dissimilarity between the models that could be noticed. In this study, SRD was performed with average values of retention factor value logk as reference values. An excellent correlation between experimentally observed retention factor value logk and values predicted by the ANN was obtained with a correlation coefficient higher than 0.9890. Statistical results show that the established ANN models can be applied for required purpose. This article is based upon work from COST Action (TD1305), supported by COST (European Cooperation in Science and Technology).

Keywords: Artificial Neural Networks, Steroids, liquid chromatography, molecular descriptors, sum of ranking differences

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7 Chemometric Estimation of Phytochemicals Affecting the Antioxidant Potential of Lettuce

Authors: Milica Karadzic, Lidija Jevric, Sanja Podunavac-Kuzmanovic, Strahinja Kovacevic, Aleksandra Tepic-Horecki, Zdravko Sumic

Abstract:

In this paper, the influence of six different phytochemical content (phenols, carotenoids, chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, chlorophyll a + b and vitamin C) on antioxidant potential of Murai and Levistro lettuce varieties was evaluated. Variable selection was made by generalized pair correlation method (GPCM) as a novel ranking method. This method is used for the discrimination between two variables that almost equal correlate to a dependent variable. Fisher’s conditional exact and McNemar’s test were carried out. Established multiple linear (MLR) models were statistically evaluated. As the best phytochemicals for the antioxidant potential prediction, chlorophyll a, chlorophyll a + b and total carotenoids content stand out. This was confirmed through both GPCM and MLR, predictive ability of obtained MLR can be used for antioxidant potential estimation for similar lettuce samples. This article is based upon work from the project of the Provincial Secretariat for Science and Technological Development of Vojvodina (No. 114-451-347/2015-02).

Keywords: Regression analysis, antioxidant activity, lettuce, generalized pair correlation method

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6 QSAR Modeling of Germination Activity of a Series of 5-(4-Substituent-Phenoxy)-3-Methylfuran-2(5H)-One Derivatives with Potential of Strigolactone Mimics toward Striga hermonthica

Authors: Strahinja Kovačević, Sanja Podunavac-Kuzmanović, Lidija Jevrić, Cristina Prandi, Piermichele Kobauri

Abstract:

The present study is based on molecular modeling of a series of twelve 5-(4-substituent-phenoxy)-3-methylfuran-2(5H)-one derivatives which have potential of strigolactones mimics toward Striga hermonthica. The first step of the analysis included the calculation of molecular descriptors which numerically describe the structures of the analyzed compounds. The descriptors ALOGP (lipophilicity), AClogS (water solubility) and BBB (blood-brain barrier penetration), served as the input variables in multiple linear regression (MLR) modeling of germination activity toward S. hermonthica. Two MLR models were obtained. The first MLR model contains ALOGP and AClogS descriptors, while the second one is based on these two descriptors plus BBB descriptor. Despite the braking Topliss-Costello rule in the second MLR model, it has much better statistical and cross-validation characteristics than the first one. The ALOGP and AClogS descriptors are often very suitable predictors of the biological activity of many compounds. They are very important descriptors of the biological behavior and availability of a compound in any biological system (i.e. the ability to pass through the cell membranes). BBB descriptor defines the ability of a molecule to pass through the blood-brain barrier. Besides the lipophilicity of a compound, this descriptor carries the information of the molecular bulkiness (its value strongly depends on molecular bulkiness). According to the obtained results of MLR modeling, these three descriptors are considered as very good predictors of germination activity of the analyzed compounds toward S. hermonthica seeds. This article is based upon work from COST Action (FA1206), supported by COST (European Cooperation in Science and Technology).

Keywords: Molecular Modeling, Chemometrics, germination activity, QSAR analysis, strigolactones

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5 Evaluation of Newly Synthesized Steroid Derivatives Using In silico Molecular Descriptors and Chemometric Techniques

Authors: Milica Ž. Karadžić, Lidija R. Jevrić, Sanja Podunavac-Kuzmanović, Strahinja Z. Kovačević, Anamarija I. Mandić, Katarina Penov-Gaši, Andrea R. Nikolić, Aleksandar M. Oklješa

Abstract:

This study considered selection of the in silico molecular descriptors and the models for newly synthesized steroid derivatives description and their characterization using chemometric techniques. Multiple linear regression (MLR) models were established and gave the best molecular descriptors for quantitative structure-retention relationship (QSRR) modeling of the retention of the investigated molecules. MLR models were without multicollinearity among the selected molecular descriptors according to the variance inflation factor (VIF) values. Used molecular descriptors were ranked using generalized pair correlation method (GPCM). In this method, the significant difference between independent variables can be noticed regardless almost equal correlation between dependent variable. Generated MLR models were statistically and cross-validated and the best models were kept. Models were ranked using sum of ranking differences (SRD) method. According to this method, the most consistent QSRR model can be found and similarity or dissimilarity between the models could be noticed. In this study, SRD was performed using average values of experimentally observed data as a golden standard. Chemometric analysis was conducted in order to characterize newly synthesized steroid derivatives for further investigation regarding their potential biological activity and further synthesis. This article is based upon work from COST Action (CM1105), supported by COST (European Cooperation in Science and Technology).

Keywords: Regression analysis, Steroids, molecular descriptors, sum of ranking differences, generalized pair correlation method

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4 Chromatographic Lipophilicity Determination of Newly Synthesized Steroid Derivatives for Further Biological Analysis

Authors: Milica Z. Karadzic, Lidija R. Jevric, Sanja Podunavac-Kuzmanovic, Strahinja Z. Kovacevic, Anamarija I. Mandic, Katarina Penov-Gasi, Andrea R. Nikolic, Aleksandar M. Okljesa

Abstract:

In this study, a set of 29 newly synthesized steroid derivatives were investigated using reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) as a first step in preselection of drug candidates. This analysis presents an experimental determination of chromatographic lipophilicity, and it was conducted to obtain physicochemical characterization of these molecules. As the most widely used bonded phases in RP-HPLC, octadecyl (C18) and octyl (C8) were used. Binary mixtures of water and acetonitrile or methanol were used as mobile phases. Obtained results were expressed as retention factor values logk and they were correlated with logP values. The results showed that both columns provide good estimations of the chromatographic lipophilicity of the molecules included in this study. This analysis was conducted in order to characterize newly synthesized steroid derivatives for further investigation regarding their antiproliferative and antimicrobial activity. This article is based upon work from COST Action (CM1306), supported by COST (European Cooperation in Science and Technology).

Keywords: Steroids, liquid chromatography, antiproliferative activity, chromatographic lipophilicity

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3 QSRR Analysis of 17-Picolyl and 17-Picolinylidene Androstane Derivatives Based on Partial Least Squares and Principal Component Regression

Authors: Sanja Podunavac-Kuzmanović, Strahinja Kovačević, Lidija Jevrić, Evgenija Djurendić, Jovana Ajduković

Abstract:

There are several methods for determination of the lipophilicity of biologically active compounds, however chromatography has been shown as a very suitable method for this purpose. Chromatographic (C18-RP-HPLC) analysis of a series of 24 17-picolyl and 17-picolinylidene androstane derivatives was carried out. The obtained retention indices (logk, methanol (90%) / water (10%)) were correlated with calculated physicochemical and lipophilicity descriptors. The QSRR analysis was carried out applying principal component regression (PCR) and partial least squares regression (PLS). The PCR and PLS model were selected on the basis of the highest variance and the lowest root mean square error of cross-validation. The obtained PCR and PLS model successfully correlate the calculated molecular descriptors with logk parameter indicating the significance of the lipophilicity of compounds in chromatographic process. On the basis of the obtained results it can be concluded that the obtained logk parameters of the analyzed androstane derivatives can be considered as their chromatographic lipophilicity. These results are the part of the project No. 114-451-347/2015-02, financially supported by the Provincial Secretariat for Science and Technological Development of Vojvodina and CMST COST Action CM1105.

Keywords: Chromatography, Molecular Structure, androstane derivatives, principal component regression, partial least squares regression

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2 Molecular Modeling of 17-Picolyl and 17-Picolinylidene Androstane Derivatives with Anticancer Activity

Authors: Sanja Podunavac-Kuzmanović, Strahinja Kovačević, Lidija Jevrić, Evgenija Djurendić, Jovana Ajduković

Abstract:

In the present study, the molecular modeling of a series of 24 17-picolyl and 17-picolinylidene androstane derivatives whit significant anticancer activity was carried out. Modelling of studied compounds was performed by CS ChemBioDraw Ultra v12.0 program for drawing 2D molecular structures and CS ChemBio3D Ultra v12.0 for 3D molecular modelling. The obtained 3D structures were subjected to energy minimization using molecular mechanics force field method (MM2). The cutoff for structure optimization was set at a gradient of 0.1 kcal/Åmol. Full geometry optimization was done by the Austin Model 1 (AM1) until the root mean square (RMS) gradient reached a value smaller than 0.0001 kcal/Åmol using Molecular Orbital Package (MOPAC) program. The obtained physicochemical, lipophilicity and topological descriptors were used for analysis of molecular similarities and dissimilarities applying suitable chemometric methods (principal component analysis and cluster analysis). These results are the part of the project No. 114-451-347/2015-02, financially supported by the Provincial Secretariat for Science and Technological Development of Vojvodina and CMST COST Action CM1306.

Keywords: Chemometrics, Anticancer Activity, molecular descriptors, androstane derivatives

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1 Antibacterial Evaluation, in Silico ADME and QSAR Studies of Some Benzimidazole Derivatives

Authors: Strahinja Kovačević, Lidija Jevrić, Miloš Kuzmanović, Sanja Podunavac-Kuzmanović

Abstract:

In this paper, various derivatives of benzimidazole have been evaluated against Gram-negative bacteria Escherichia coli. For all investigated compounds the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined. Quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSAR) attempts to find consistent relationships between the variations in the values of molecular properties and the biological activity for a series of compounds so that these rules can be used to evaluate new chemical entities. The correlation between MIC and some absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion (ADME) parameters was investigated, and the mathematical models for predicting the antibacterial activity of this class of compounds were developed. The quality of the multiple linear regression (MLR) models was validated by the leave-one-out (LOO) technique, as well as by the calculation of the statistical parameters for the developed models and the results are discussed on the basis of the statistical data. The results of this study indicate that ADME parameters have a significant effect on the antibacterial activity of this class of compounds. Principal component analysis (PCA) and agglomerative hierarchical clustering algorithms (HCA) confirmed that the investigated molecules can be classified into groups on the basis of the ADME parameters: Madin-Darby Canine Kidney cell permeability (MDCK), Plasma protein binding (PPB%), human intestinal absorption (HIA%) and human colon carcinoma cell permeability (Caco-2).

Keywords: ADME, QSAR, benzimidazoles, in silico

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