Amit K. Jaiswal

Abstracts

4 Effect of Ultrasound-Assisted Pretreatment on Saccharification of Spent Coffee Grounds

Authors: Brijesh K. Tiwari, Amit K. Jaiswal, Shady S. Hassan, Gwilym A. Williams

Abstract:

EU is known as the destination with the highest rate of the coffee consumption per capita in the world. Spent coffee grounds (SCG) are the main by-product of coffee brewing. SCG is either disposed as a solid waste or employed as compost, although the polysaccharides from such lignocellulosic biomass might be used as feedstock for fermentation processes. However, SCG as a lignocellulose have a complex structure and pretreatment process is required to facilitate an efficient enzymatic hydrolysis of carbohydrates. However, commonly used pretreatment methods, such as chemical, physico-chemical and biological techniques are still insufficient to meet optimal industrial production requirements in a sustainable way. Ultrasound is a promising candidate as a sustainable green pretreatment solution for lignocellulosic biomass utilization in a large scale biorefinery. Thus, ultrasound pretreatment of SCG without adding harsh chemicals investigated as a green technology to enhance enzyme hydrolysis. In the present work, ultrasound pretreatment experiments were conducted on SCG using different ultrasound frequencies (25, 35, 45, 130, and 950 kHz) for 60 min. Regardless of ultrasound power, low ultrasound frequency is more effective than high ultrasound frequency in pretreatment of biomass. Ultrasound pretreatment of SCG (at ultrasound frequency of 25 kHz for 60 min) followed by enzymatic hydrolysis resulted in total reducing sugars of 56.1 ± 2.8 mg/g of biomass. Fourier transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) was employed to investigate changes in functional groups of biomass after pretreatment, while high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was employed for determination of glucose. Pretreatment of lignocellulose by low frequency ultrasound in water only was found to be an effective green approach for SCG to improve saccharification and glucose yield compared to native biomass. Pretreatment conditions will be optimized, and the enzyme hydrolysate will be used as media component substitute for the production of ethanol.

Keywords: Ultrasound, Pretreatment, lignocellulose, spent coffee grounds

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3 Evaluation of Microwave-Assisted Pretreatment for Spent Coffee Grounds

Authors: Brijesh K. Tiwari, Amit K. Jaiswal, Shady S. Hassan, Gwilym A. Williams

Abstract:

Waste materials from a wide range of agro-industrial processes may be used as substrates for microbial growth, and subsequently the production of a range of high value products and bioenergy. In addition, utilization of these agro-residues in bioprocesses has the dual advantage of providing alternative substrates, as well as solving their disposal problems. Spent coffee grounds (SCG) are a by-product (45%) of coffee processing. SCG is a lignocellulosic material, which is composed mainly of cellulose, hemicelluloses, and lignin. Thus, a pretreatment process is required to facilitate an efficient enzymatic hydrolysis of such carbohydrates. In this context, microwave pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass without the addition of harsh chemicals represents a green technology. Moreover, microwave treatment has a high heating efficiency and is easy to implement. Thus, microwave pretreatment of SCG without adding of harsh chemicals investigated as a green technology to enhance enzyme hydrolysis. In the present work, microwave pretreatment experiments were conducted on SCG at varying power levels (100, 250, 440, 600, and 1000 W) for 60 s. By increasing microwave power to a certain level (which vary by varying biomass), reducing sugar increases, then reducing sugar from biomass start to decrease with microwave power increase beyond this level. Microwave pretreatment of SCG at 60s followed by enzymatic hydrolysis resulted in total reducing sugars of 91.6 ± 7.0 mg/g of biomass (at microwave power of 100 w). Fourier transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) was employed to investigate changes in functional groups of biomass after pretreatment, while high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was employed for determination of glucose. Pretreatment of lignocellulose using microwave was found to be an effective and energy efficient technology to improve saccharification and glucose yield. Energy performance will be evaluated for the microwave pretreatment, and the enzyme hydrolysate will be used as media component substitute for the production of ethanol and other high value products.

Keywords: Microwave, Pretreatment, lignocellulose, spent coffee grounds

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2 Ultrasound Assisted Alkaline Potassium Permanganate Pre-Treatment of Spent Coffee Waste

Authors: Rajeev Ravindran, Amit K. Jaiswal

Abstract:

Lignocellulose is the largest reservoir of inexpensive, renewable source of carbon. It is composed of lignin, cellulose and hemicellulose. Cellulose and hemicellulose is composed of reducing sugars glucose, xylose and several other monosaccharides which can be metabolised by microorganisms to produce several value added products such as biofuels, enzymes, aminoacids etc. Enzymatic treatment of lignocellulose leads to the release of monosaccharides such as glucose and xylose. However, factors such as the presence of lignin, crystalline cellulose, acetyl groups, pectin etc. contributes to recalcitrance restricting the effective enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose and hemicellulose. In order to overcome these problems, pre-treatment of lignocellulose is generally carried out which essentially facilitate better degradation of lignocellulose. A range of pre-treatment strategy is commonly employed based on its mode of action viz. physical, chemical, biological and physico-chemical. However, existing pretreatment strategies result in lower sugar yield and formation of inhibitory compounds. In order to overcome these problems, we proposes a novel pre-treatment, which utilises the superior oxidising capacity of alkaline potassium permanganate assisted by ultra-sonication to break the covalent bonds in spent coffee waste to remove recalcitrant compounds such as lignin. The pre-treatment was conducted for 30 minutes using 2% (w/v) potassium permanganate at room temperature with solid to liquid ratio of 1:10. The pre-treated spent coffee waste (SCW) was subjected to enzymatic hydrolysis using enzymes cellulase and hemicellulase. Shake flask experiments were conducted with a working volume of 50mL buffer containing 1% substrate. The results showed that the novel pre-treatment strategy yielded 7 g/L of reducing sugar as compared to 3.71 g/L obtained from biomass that had undergone dilute acid hydrolysis after 24 hours. From the results obtained it is fairly certain that ultrasonication assists the oxidation of recalcitrant components in lignocellulose by potassium permanganate. Enzyme hydrolysis studies suggest that ultrasound assisted alkaline potassium permanganate pre-treatment is far superior over treatment by dilute acid. Furthermore, SEM, XRD and FTIR were carried out to analyse the effect of the new pre-treatment strategy on structure and crystallinity of pre-treated spent coffee wastes. This novel one-step pre-treatment strategy was implemented under mild conditions and exhibited high efficiency in the enzymatic hydrolysis of spent coffee waste. Further study and scale up is in progress in order to realise future industrial applications.

Keywords: ultra-sonication, spent coffee waste, alkaline potassium permanganate, physical characterisation

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1 Sequential and Combinatorial Pre-Treatment Strategy of Lignocellulose for the Enhanced Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Spent Coffee Waste

Authors: Rajeev Ravindran, Amit K. Jaiswal

Abstract:

Waste from the food-processing industry is produced in large amount and contains high levels of lignocellulose. Due to continuous accumulation throughout the year in large quantities, it creates a major environmental problem worldwide. The chemical composition of these wastes (up to 75% of its composition is contributed by polysaccharide) makes it inexpensive raw material for the production of value-added products such as biofuel, bio-solvents, nanocrystalline cellulose and enzymes. In order to use lignocellulose as the raw material for the microbial fermentation, the substrate is subjected to enzymatic treatment, which leads to the release of reducing sugars such as glucose and xylose. However, the inherent properties of lignocellulose such as presence of lignin, pectin, acetyl groups and the presence of crystalline cellulose contribute to recalcitrance. This leads to poor sugar yields upon enzymatic hydrolysis of lignocellulose. A pre-treatment method is generally applied before enzymatic treatment of lignocellulose that essentially removes recalcitrant components in biomass through structural breakdown. Present study is carried out to find out the best pre-treatment method for the maximum liberation of reducing sugars from spent coffee waste (SPW). SPW was subjected to a range of physical, chemical and physico-chemical pre-treatment followed by a sequential, combinatorial pre-treatment strategy is also applied on to attain maximum sugar yield by combining two or more pre-treatments. All the pre-treated samples were analysed for total reducing sugar followed by identification and quantification of individual sugar by HPLC coupled with RI detector. Besides, generation of any inhibitory compounds such furfural, hydroxymethyl furfural (HMF) which can hinder microbial growth and enzyme activity is also monitored. Results showed that ultrasound treatment (31.06 mg/L) proved to be the best pre-treatment method based on total reducing content followed by dilute acid hydrolysis (10.03 mg/L) while galactose was found to be the major monosaccharide present in the pre-treated SPW. Finally, the results obtained from the study were used to design a sequential lignocellulose pre-treatment protocol to decrease the formation of enzyme inhibitors and increase sugar yield on enzymatic hydrolysis by employing cellulase-hemicellulase consortium. Sequential, combinatorial treatment was found better in terms of total reducing yield and low content of the inhibitory compounds formation, which could be due to the fact that this mode of pre-treatment combines several mild treatment methods rather than formulating a single one. It eliminates the need for a detoxification step and potential application in the valorisation of lignocellulosic food waste.

Keywords: Ultrasound, Pre-treatment, Enzymatic Hydrolysis, lignocellulose

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