M. Younus

Abstracts

3 Molecular Detection and Isolation of Benzimidazole Resistant Haemonchus contortus from Pakistan

Authors: K. Ali, M. F. Qamar, M. A. Zaman, M. Younus, I. Khan, S. Ehtisham-ul-Haque, R. Tamkeen, M. I. Rashid, Q. Ali

Abstract:

This study centers on molecular identification of Haemonchus contortus and isolation of Benz-imidazoles (BZ) resistant strains. Different abattoirs’ of two geographic regions of Punjab (Pakistan) were frequently visited for the collection of worms. Out of 1500 (n=1500) samples that were morphologically confirmed as H. contortus, 30 worms were subjected to molecular procedures for isolation of resistant strains. Resistant worms (n=8) were further subjected to DNA gene sequencing. Bio edit sequence alignment editor software was used to detect the possible mutation, deletion, replacement of nucleotides. Genetic diversity was noticed and genetic variation existing in β-tubulin isotype 1 of the H. contortus population of small ruminants of different regions considered in this study. H. contortus showed three different type of genetic sequences. 75%, 37.5%, 25% and 12.5% of the studied samples showed 100% query cover and identity with isolates and clones of China, UK, Australia and other countries, respectively. Interestingly the neighbor countries such as India and Iran haven’t many similarities with the Pakistani isolates. Thus, it suggests that population density of same genetic makeup H. contortus is scattered worldwide rather than clustering in a single region.

Keywords: Haemonchus contortus, Benzimidazole resistant, β-tubulin-1 gene, abattoirs

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2 Seroprevalence and Potential Risk Factors of Bovine Brucellosis under Diverse Production Systems in Central Punjab, Paksitan

Authors: A. Khan, I. Khan, M. Younus, S. E. Haque, U. Waheed, H. Neubauer, A. A. Anjum, S. A. Muhammad, A. Idrees T. Abbas, S. Raza, M. A. Ali, M. Farooq, M. Mahmood, A. Hussain, H. Danish, U. Tayyab, M. Zafar, M. Aslam.

Abstract:

Brucellosis is one of the major problems of milk producing animals in our country which deteriorate the health of livestock. It is a disease of zoonotic significance which is capable of producing disease in humans leading to infertility, orchitis, abortions, and synovitis. In this particular study, milk and serum samples of cattle and buffalo (n=402) were collected from different districts of Punjab including Narowal, Gujranwala and Gujrat. Milk samples were analyzed by Milk Ring Test (MRT), while serum samples were tested through Rose Bengal Plate agglutination Test (RBPT) and Indirect Enzyme Linked Immunosorbant Assay (i-ELISA). The sample tested with MRT were 9.5% positive, including cattle 9.6% and buffalo 9.3%. While using the RBPT test for the detection of serum samples and for screening purpose it was observed that 16.4% animals were seropositive, cattle were 18.8% and buffalo were 13.9% seropositive. The higher prevalence of brucellosis indicates the danger of the disease to human population. The serum samples positive by RBPT were further confirmed by the use of most specific and sensitive serological test known as i-ELISA. 11.4% animals were confirmed as seropositive by i-ELISA including cattle 13.5% seropositive and buffalo 9.3%. The results indicated high seroprevalence of brucellosis in cattle as compared to buffalos. Different risk factors were also studied to know the association between disease and their spread. Advanced age, larger herds, history of abortion and pregnancy of the animals is considered to be the important factors for the prevalence and spread of the hazardous zoonotic disease. It is a core issue of developing countries like Pakistan and has major public health impact.

Keywords: Humans, Brucellosis, infertility, seroprevalence, bovines, orchitis, abortions

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1 Hematological Changes in the Hydatidosed Male Sheep after Experimental Inoculation of Echinococcus granulosus Eggs

Authors: M. Younus, Muhammad Shafique, M. Athar Khan, Tanveer Akhtar , M. Moeen Athar

Abstract:

A total of 48 apparently healthy weaned sheep lambs (Ovis aries) of 8-10 weeks old weighing 7-10 Kg were purchased from the contractors, maintained in the experimental station of University of the Punjab, Quaid-e-Azam Campus at Lahore, Pakistan. They were dewormed against nematodes with levamisole (ICI) at recommended dose rates. The feces were tested against the parasitic eggs, no helminths ova were seen. All the 48 sheep lambs were divided into two groups i.e. group A & group B. Group 'A' comprising of 40 sheep, kept as infected groups whereas group 'B' comprising of 08 sheep & kept as a new infected control group. Each sheep lamb of group A was given 3-4 fresh gravid segments contains 2-3 thousand eggs of Echinococcus granulosus. These were collected from experimentally infected dogs by feeding fresh hydrated cysts collected from liver & lungs of sheep after slaughtering. Each lamb was fed with fresh gravid segments for a total period of 5 days or each alternate day. Coagulated blood was collected before the start of infected diet and after every month by jugular phlebotomy of each sheep lamb from the infected & new infected control group. One lamb each from group A & group B was slaughtered at the end of each month for the presence of macroscopic hydatid cyst in viscera & abdominal cavity. After 180 days of the experiment, hydatid cysts were confirmed in the abdominal cavity. Hematological parameters of zero days & then at the end of every month revealed that there was a gradual increase (PL 0.05) in the White Blood Cell (WBC), Mean Corpuscular Volume (MCV), Mean Corpuscular Hemoglobin Concentration (MCHC) and Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rates (ESR). The increasing trend was probably due to inflammatory response and lytic effect of the newly developing E. granulosus hydatid cysts. The red blood cell (RBC), Hemoglobin (HB), Packed Cell Volume (PCV) and Mean Corpuscular Hemoglobin (MCH) infected groups were decreased significantly as compared to the control group (PL 0.05). The experiment was terminated at the end of the 7th month. It can be concluded that Echinococcus granulosus can damage livestock and other intermediate hosts such as horses, the development of hydatid cysts affect the organs due to the growing cysts pressuring the organ tissues. Parts of the tissue die, which impairs the functioning of the affected organ. The clinical signs depend on the affected organ. The major damage for livestock is organ condemnation at slaughter.

Keywords: Hematology, Sheep, hydatidosis, Echinococcus granulosus

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