Farrukh Jamil

Abstracts

5 Date Pits Oil Used as Potential Source for Synthesizing Jet Fuel and Green Diesel Fractions

Authors: Farrukh Jamil, Ala'a H. Al-Muhtaseb, Lamya Al-Haj, Mohab A. Al-Hinai

Abstract:

Date pits are major agricultural waste produced in Oman. Current work was conducted to produce jet fuel and green diesel from hydrodeoxygenation of Date pits oil in the presence of Pd/C catalyst. The hydrodeoxygenation of Date pits oil occurred to be highly efficient at following mild operating conditions such as conditions temperature 300°C pressure 10bar with continuous stirring at 500rpm. Detailed product characterization revealed that large fraction of paraffinic hydrocarbons was found which accounts up to 91.1 % which attributed due to efficient hydrodeoxygenation. Based on the type of components in product oil, it was calculated that the maximum fraction of hydrocarbons formed lies within the range of green diesel 72.0 % then jet fuel 30.4% by using Pd/C catalysts. The densities of product oil were 0.88 kg/m³, the viscosity of products calculated was 3.49 mm²/s. Calorific values for products obtained were 44.11 MJ/kg when Pd/C catalyst was used for hydrodeoxygenation. Based on products analysis it can conclude that Date pits oil could successfully utilize for synthesizing green diesel and jet fuel fraction.

Keywords: biomass, Catalyst, green diesel, jet fuel

Procedia PDF Downloads 144
4 Synthesis of Oxygenated Fuel Additive from Bio-Glycerol

Authors: Farrukh Jamil, Ala'a H. Al-Muhtaseb, Lamya Al-Haj, Mohab A. Al-Hinai

Abstract:

Glycerol is considered as high boiling polar triol and immiscible with fossil fuel fractions due to which it is transformed into its respective ketals and acetals which help to improve the quality of diesel emitting less amount of aldehydes and carbon monoxide. Solketal visual appearance is transparent, and it is odorless organic liquid used as a fuel additive for diesel to improve its cold flow properties. Condensation of bio-glycerol with bio-acetone in presence of beta zeolite has been done for synthesizing solketal. It was observed that glycerol conversion and selectivity of solketal was largely effected by temperature, as it increases from 40 ºC to 60 ºC the conversion of glycerol rises from 80.04 % to 94.26 % and selectivity of solketal from 80.0 % to 94.21 % but further increase in temperature to 100 ºC glycerol conversion reduced to 93.06 % and solketal selectivity to 92.08 %. At the optimum conditions, the bio-glycerol conversion and solketal yield were about 94.26% and 94.21wt% respectively. This process offers an attractive route for converting bio-glycerol, the main by-product of biodiesel to solketal with bio-acetone; a value-added green product with potential industrial applications as a valuable green fuel additive or combustion promoter for gasoline/diesel engines.

Keywords: biomass, Catalyst, bio-glycerol, green additive

Procedia PDF Downloads 112
3 Synthesis of Highly Valuable Fuel Fractions from Waste Date Seeds Oil

Authors: Farrukh Jamil, Ala'A H. Al-Muhtaseb, Lamya Al-Haj, Mohab A. Al-Hinai

Abstract:

Environmental problems and the security of energy supply have motivated the attention in the expansion of alternatives for fossil based fuels. Biomass has been recognized as a capable resource because it is plentifully available and in principle carbon dioxide neutral. Present study focuses on utilization date seeds oil for synthesizing high value fuels formulations such as green diesel and jet fuel. The hydrodeoxygenation of date seeds oil occurred to be highly efficient at following operating conditions temperature 300°C pressure 10bar with continuous stirring at 500 rpm. Products characterization revealed the efficiency of hydrodeoxygenation by formation of linear hydrocarbons (paraffin) in larger fraction. Based on the type of components in product oil it was calculated that maximum fraction lies within the range of green diesel 72.78 % then jet fuel 28.25 % by using Pt/C catalyst. It can be concluded that waste date seeds oil has potential to be used for obtaining high value products.

Keywords: paraffin, date seeds, hydrodeoxygenation, deoxygenation

Procedia PDF Downloads 109
2 Synthesis of Green Fuel Additive from Waste Bio-Glycerol

Authors: Ala’a H. Al-Muhtaseb, Farrukh Jamil, Lamya Al-Haj, Mohab Al-Hinai

Abstract:

Bio-glycerol is considered as high boiling polar triol and immiscible with fossil fuel fractions due to which it is transformed into its respective ketals and acetals which help to improve the quality of diesel emitting less amount of aldehydes and carbon monoxide. Solketal visual appearance is transparent and it is odorless organic liquid used as fuel additive for diesel to improve its cold flow properties. Condensation of bio-glycerol with bio-acetone in presence of beta zeolite has been done for synthesizing solketal. It was observed that glycerol conversion and selectivity of solketal was largely effected by temperature, as it increases from 40 ºC to 60 ºC the conversion of glycerol rises from 80.04 % to 94.26 % and selectivity of solketal from 80.0 % to 94.21 % but further increase in temperature to 100 ºC glycerol conversion reduced to 93.06 % and solketal selectivity to 92.08 %. At the optimum conditions, the bio-glycerol conversion and solketal yield were about 94.26% and 94.21wt% respectively. This process offers an attractive route for converting bio-glycerol, the main by-product of biodiesel to solketal with bio-acetone; a value-added green product with potential industrial applications as a valuable green fuel additive or combustion promoter for gasoline/diesel engines.

Keywords: bio-acetone, bio-glycerol, acetylation, solketal

Procedia PDF Downloads 152
1 Utilization of Bio-Glycerol to Synthesize Fuel Additive in Presence of Modified Mesoporous Heterogeneous Catalysts

Authors: Ala’a H. Al-Muhtaseb, Farrukh Jamil, Sandeep K. Saxena

Abstract:

The fast growth rate of energy consumption along with world population expected to demand 50% more energy by 2030 than nowadays. At present, the energy demand is mostly provided by limited fossil fuel sources such as oil, natural gas, and coal that are resulting in dramatic increase in CO2 emissions from combustion of fossil fuels. The growth of the biodiesel industry over the last decade has resulted in a price drop because glycerol is obtained as a by-product during transesterification of vegetable oil or animal fats, which accounts for one tenth of every gallon of biodiesel produced. The production of oxygenates from glycerol gains much importance due to the excellent diesel-blending property of the oxygenates that not only improve the quality of the fuel but also increases the overall yield of the biodiesel in helping to meet the target for energy production from renewable sources for transport in the energy utilization directives. The reaction of bio-glycerol with bio-acetone was carried out in a magnetically stirred two necked round bottom flaskS. Condensation of bio-glycerol with acetone in the presence of various modified forms of beta zeolite has been done for synthesizing solketal (AB-2 modified with nitric acid, AB-3 modified with oxalic acid). Among all modified forms of beta zeolite, AB-2 showed the best performance for maximum glycerol conversion 94.26 % with 94.21 % solketal selectivity and minimum acetal formation 0.05 %. The physiochemical properties of parent beta zeolite and all its modified forms were analyzed by XRD, SEM, TEM, BET, FTIR and TPD. It has been revealed that AB-2 catalysts with high pore volume and surface area gave high glycerol conversion with maximum solketal selectivity. Despite this, the crystallinity of AB-3 was lower than AB-2 which helps to provide the shorter path length for reactants and product but due high pore volume AB-2 was preferred which gave maximum bio-glycerol conversion. Temperature does matter the glycerol conversion and selectivity of solketal, as it increases from 40 ºC to 60 ºC the conversion of glycerol rises from 80.04 % to 94.26 % and selectivity of solketal from 80.0 % to 94.21 % but further increase in temperature to 100 ºC glycerol conversion reduced to 93.06 % and solketal selectivity to 92.08 %. AB-2 was found to be highly stable as up to 4 repeated experimental runs there was less than 10% decrease in its activity. This process offers an attractive route for converting bio-glycerol, the main by-product of biodiesel to solketal with bio-acetone; a value-added green product with potential industrial applications as a valuable green fuel additive or combustion promoter for gasoline/diesel engines.

Keywords: Catalyst, bio-glycerol, solketal, beta-zeolite

Procedia PDF Downloads 101