Kristina Amaleviciute

Abstracts

4 Soil Quality Response to Long-Term Intensive Resources Management and Soil Texture

Authors: Kristina Amaleviciute, Jonas Volungevicius, Dalia Feiziene, Virginijus Feiza, Agne Putramentaite, Sarunas Antanaitis

Abstract:

The investigations on soil conservation are one of the most important topics in modern agronomy. Soil management practices have great influence on soil physico-chemical quality and GHG emission. Research objective: To reveal the sensitivity and vitality of soils with different texture to long-term antropogenisation on Cambisol in Central Lithuania and to compare them with not antropogenised soil resources. Methods: Two long-term field experiments (loam on loam; sandy loam on loam) with different management intensity were estimated. Disturbed and undisturbed soil samples were collected from 5-10, 15-20 and 30-35 cm depths. Soil available P and K contents were determined by ammonium lactate extraction, total N by the dry combustion method, SOC content by Tyurin titrimetric (classical) method, texture by pipette method. In undisturbed core samples soil pore volume distribution, plant available water (PAW) content were determined. A closed chamber method was applied to quantify soil respiration (SR). Results: Long-term resources management changed soil quality. In soil with loam texture, within 0-10, 10-20 and 30-35 cm soil layers, significantly higher PAW, SOC and mesoporosity (MsP) were under no-tillage (NT) than under conventional tillage (CT). However, total porosity (TP) under NT was significantly higher only in 0-10 cm layer. MsP acted as dominant factor for N, P and K accumulation in adequate layers. P content in all soil layers was higher under NT than in CT. N and K contents were significantly higher than under CT only in 0-10 cm layer. In soil with sandy loam texture, significant increase in SOC, PAW, MsP, N, P and K under NT was only in 0-10 cm layer. TP under NT was significantly lower in all layers. PAW acted as strong dominant factor for N, P, K accumulation. The higher PAW the higher NPK contents were determined. NT did not secure chemical quality within deeper layers than CT. Long-term application of mineral fertilisers significantly increased SOC and soil NPK contents primarily in top-soil. Enlarged fertilization determined the significantly higher leaching of nutrients to deeper soil layers (CT) and increased hazards of top-soil pollution. Straw returning significantly increased SOC and NPK accumulation in top-soil. The SR on sandy loam was significantly higher than on loam. At dry weather conditions, on loam SR was higher in NT than in CT, on sandy loam SR was higher in CT than in NT. NPK fertilizers promoted significantly higher SR in both dry and wet year, but suppressed SR on sandy loam during usual year. Not antropogenised soil had similar SOC and NPK distribution within 0-35 cm layer and depended on genesis of soil profile horizons.

Keywords: Fertilizers, Soil Tillage, soil texture, straw, long-term experiments

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3 Storage of Organic Carbon in Chemical Fractions in Acid Soil as Influenced by Different Liming

Authors: Kristina Amaleviciute, Ieva Jokubauskaite, Alvyra Slepetiene, Inga Liaudanskiene, Danute Karcauskiene

Abstract:

Soil organic carbon (SOC) is the key soil quality and ecological stability indicator, therefore, carbon accumulation in stable forms not only supports and increases the organic matter content in the soil, but also has a positive effect on the quality of soil and the whole ecosystem. Soil liming is one of the most common ways to improve the carbon sequestration in the soil. Determination of the optimum intensity and combinations of liming in order to ensure the optimal carbon quantitative and qualitative parameters is one of the most important tasks of this work. The field experiments were carried out at the Vezaiciai Branch of Lithuanian Research Centre for Agriculture and Forestry (LRCAF) during the 2011–2013 period. The effect of liming with different intensity (at a rate 0.5 every 7 years and 2.0 every 3-4 years) was investigated in the topsoil of acid moraine loam Bathygleyic Dystric Glossic Retisol. Chemical analyses were carried out at the Chemical Research Laboratory of Institute of Agriculture, LRCAF. Soil samples for chemical analyses were taken from the topsoil after harvesting. SOC was determined by the Tyurin method modified by Nikitin, measuring with spectrometer Cary 50 (VARIAN) at 590 nm wavelength using glucose standards. SOC fractional composition was determined by Ponomareva and Plotnikova version of classical Tyurin method. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) was analyzed using an ion chromatograph SKALAR in water extract at soil-water ratio 1:5. Spectral properties (E4/E6 ratio) of humic acids were determined by measuring the absorbance of humic and fulvic acids solutions at 465 and 665 nm. Our study showed a negative statistically significant effect of periodical liming (at 0.5 and 2.0 liming rates) on SOC content in the soil. The content of SOC was 1.45% in the unlimed treatment, while in periodically limed at 2.0 liming rate every 3–4 years it was approximately by 0.18 percentage points lower. It was revealed that liming significantly decreased the DOC concentration in the soil. The lowest concentration of DOC (0.156 g kg-1) was established in the most intensively limed (2.0 liming rate every 3–4 years) treatment. Soil liming exerted an increase of all humic acids and fulvic acid bounded with calcium fractions content in the topsoil. Soil liming resulted in the accumulation of valuable humic acids. Due to the applied liming, the HR/FR ratio, indicating the quality of humus increased to 1.08 compared with that in unlimed soil (0.81). Intensive soil liming promoted the formation of humic acids in which groups of carboxylic and phenolic compounds predominated. These humic acids are characterized by a higher degree of condensation of aromatic compounds and in this way determine the intensive organic matter humification processes in the soil. The results of this research provide us with the clear information on the characteristics of SOC change, which could be very useful to guide the climate policy and sustainable soil management.

Keywords: Carbon Sequestration, soil organic carbon, acid soil, long–term liming

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2 Labile and Humified Carbon Storage in Natural and Anthropogenically Affected Luvisols

Authors: Kristina Amaleviciute, Ieva Jokubauskaite, Alvyra Slepetiene, Jonas Volungevicius, Inga Liaudanskiene

Abstract:

The main task of this research was to investigate the chemical composition of the differently used soil in profiles. To identify the differences in the soil were investigated organic carbon (SOC) and its fractional composition: dissolved organic carbon (DOC), mobile humic acids (MHA) and C to N ratio of natural and anthropogenically affected Luvisols. Research object: natural and anthropogenically affected Luvisol, Akademija, Kedainiai, distr. Lithuania. Chemical analyses were carried out at the Chemical Research Laboratory of Institute of Agriculture, LAMMC. Soil samples for chemical analyses were taken from the genetics soil horizons. SOC was determined by the Tyurin method modified by Nikitin, measuring with spectrometer Cary 50 (VARIAN) in 590 nm wavelength using glucose standards. For mobile humic acids (MHA) determination the extraction procedure was carried out using 0.1 M NaOH solution. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) was analyzed using an ion chromatograph SKALAR. pH was measured in 1M H2O. N total was determined by Kjeldahl method. Results: Based on the obtained results, it can be stated that transformation of chemical composition is going through the genetic soil horizons. Morphology of the upper layers of soil profile which is formed under natural conditions was changed by anthropomorphic (agrogenic, urbogenic, technogenic and others) structure. Anthropogenic activities, mechanical and biochemical disturbances destroy the natural characteristics of soil formation and complicates the interpretation of soil development. Due to the intensive cultivation, the pH values of the curve equals (disappears acidification characteristic for E horizon) with natural Luvisol. Luvisols affected by agricultural activities was characterized by a decrease in the absolute amount of humic substances in separate horizons. But there was observed more sustainable, higher carbon sequestration and thicker storage of humic horizon compared with forest Luvisol. However, the average content of humic substances in the soil profile was lower. Soil organic carbon content in anthropogenic Luvisols was lower compared with the natural forest soil, but there was more evenly spread over in the wider thickness of accumulative horizon. These data suggest that the organization of geo-ecological declines and agroecological increases in Luvisols. Acknowledgement: This work was supported by the National Science Program ‘The effect of long-term, different-intensity management of resources on the soils of different genesis and on other components of the agro-ecosystems’ [grant number SIT-9/2015] funded by the Research Council of Lithuania.

Keywords: soil organic carbon, agrogenization, dissolved organic carbon, luvisol, mobile humic acids

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1 Reflection of Landscape Agrogenization in the Soil Cover Structure and Profile Morphology: Example of Lithuania Agroecosystem

Authors: Kristina Amaleviciute, Alvyra Slepetiene, Jonas Volungevicius, Rimantas Vaisvalavicius, Darijus Veteikis

Abstract:

Lithuanian territory is characterized by landscape with prevailing morain hills and clayey lowlands. The largest part of it has endured agrogenization of various degrees which was the cause of changes both in the structure of landscape and soil cover, transformations of soil profile and degradation of natural background soils. These changes influence negatively geoecological potential of landscape and soil and contribute to the weakening of the sustainability of agroecosystems. Research objective: to reveal the landscape agrogenization induced alterations of catenae and their appendant soil profiles in Lithuanian morain hills and clayey lowlands. Methods: Soil cover analysis and catenae charting was conducted using landscape profiling; soil morphology detected and soil type identified following WRB 2014. Granulometric composition of soil profiles was obtained by laser diffraction method (lazer diffractometer Mastersizer 2000). pH was measured in H2O extraction using potentiometric titration; SOC was determined by the Tyurin method modified by Nikitin, measuring with spectrometer Cary 50 (VARIAN) in 590 nm wavelength using glucose standards. Results: analysis showed that the decrease of forest vegetation and the other natural landscape components following the agrogenization of the research area influenced differently but significantly the structural alterations in soil cover and vertical soil profile. The research detected that due to landscape agrogenization, the suppression of zone-specific processes and the intensification of inter-zone processes determined by agrogenic factors take place in Lithuanian agroecosystems. In forested hills historically prevailing Retisols and Histosols territorial complex is transforming into the territorial complex of Regosols, Deluvial soils and drained Histosols. Processes taking place are simplification of vertical profile structure, intensive rejuvenation of profile, disappearance of the features of zone-specific soil-forming processes (podzolization, lessivage, gley formation). Erosion and deluvial processes manifest more intensively and weakly accumulating organic material more intensively spread in a vertical soil profile. The territorial soil complex of Gleyic Luvisols and Gleysols dominating in forested clayey lowlands subjected to agrogenization is transformed into the catena of drained Luvisols and pseudo Cambisols. The best expressed are their changes in moisture regime (morphological features of gley and stagnic properties are on decline) together with alterations of pH and distribution and intensity of accumulation of organic matter in profile. A specific horizon, antraquic, uncharacteristic to natural soil formation is appearing. Important to note that due to deep ploughing and other agrotechnical measures, the natural vertical differentiation of clay particles in a soil profile is destroyed which leads not only to alterations of physical qualities of soil, but also encumbers the identification of Luvisols by creating presumptions to misidentify them as Cambisols. The latter have never developed in these ecosystems under the present climatic conditions. Acknowledgements: This work was supported by the National Science Program: The effect of long-term, different-intensity management of resources on the soils of different genesis and on other components of the agro-ecosystems [grant number SIT-9/2015] funded by the Research Council of Lithuania.

Keywords: Agroecosystems, landscape agrogenization, luvisols, retisols, transformation of soil profile

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