Andrzej Katrusiak


1 High-Pressure Polymorphism of 4,4-Bipyridine Hydrobromide

Authors: Michalina Aniola, Andrzej Katrusiak


4,4-Bipyridine is an important compound often used in chemical practice and more recently frequently applied for designing new metal organic framework (MoFs). Here we present a systematic high-pressure study of its hydrobromide salt. 4,4-Bipyridine hydrobromide monohydrate, 44biPyHBrH₂O, at ambient-pressure is orthorhombic, space group P212121 (phase a). Its hydrostatic compression shows that it is stable to 1.32 GPa at least. However, the recrystallization above 0.55 GPa reveals a new hidden b-phase (monoclinic, P21/c). Moreover, when the 44biPyHBrH2O is heated to high temperature the chemical reactions of this compound in methanol solution can be observed. High-pressure experiments were performed using a Merrill-Bassett diamond-anvil cell (DAC), modified by mounting the anvils directly on the steel supports, and X-ray diffraction measurements were carried out on a KUMA and Excalibur diffractometer equipped with an EOS CCD detector. At elevated pressure, the crystal of 44biPyHBrH₂O exhibits several striking and unexpected features. No signs of instability of phase a were detected to 1.32 GPa, while phase b becomes stable at above 0.55 GPa, as evidenced by its recrystallizations. Phases a and b of 44biPyHBrH2O are partly isostructural: their unit-cell dimensions and the arrangement of ions and water molecules are similar. In phase b the HOH-Br- chains double the frequency of their zigzag motifs, compared to phase a, and the 44biPyH+ cations change their conformation. Like in all monosalts of 44biPy determined so far, in phase a the pyridine rings are twisted by about 30 degrees about bond C4-C4 and in phase b they assume energy-unfavorable planar conformation. Another unusual feature of 44biPyHBrH2O is that all unit-cell parameters become longer on the transition from phase a to phase b. Thus the volume drop on the transition to high-pressure phase b totally depends on the shear strain of the lattice. Higher temperature triggers chemical reactions of 44biPyHBrH2O with methanol. When the saturated methanol solution compound precipitated at 0.1 GPa and temperature of 423 K was required to dissolve all the sample, the subsequent slow recrystallization at isochoric conditions resulted in disalt 4,4-bipyridinium dibromide. For the 44biPyHBrH2O sample sealed in the DAC at 0.35 GPa, then dissolved at isochoric conditions at 473 K and recrystallized by slow controlled cooling, a reaction of N,N-dimethylation took place. It is characteristic that in both high-pressure reactions of 44biPyHBrH₂O the unsolvated disalt products were formed and that free base 44biPy and H₂O remained in the solution. The observed reactions indicate that high pressure destabilized ambient-pressure salts and favors new products. Further studies on pressure-induced reactions are carried out in order to better understand the structural preferences induced by pressure.

Keywords: Polymorphism, high-pressure, conformation, negative area compressibility

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