Wei Xu


4 Highly Sensitive Fiber-Optic Curvature Sensor Based on Four Mode Fiber

Authors: Ying Shen, Wei Xu, Qihang Zeng, Changyuan Yu


In this paper, a highly sensitive fiber-optic curvature sensor based on four mode fiber (FMF) is presented and investigated. The proposed sensing structure is constructed by fusing a section of FMF into two standard single mode fibers (SMFs) concatenated with two no core fiber (NCF), i.e., SMF-NCF-FMF-NCF-SMF structure is fabricated. The length of the NCF is very short about 1 millimeter acting as exciting/recoupling the light from/into the core of the SMF, while the FMF is with 3 centimeters long supporting four eigenmodes including LP₀₁, LP₁₁, LP₂₁ and LP₀₂. High core modes in FMF can be effectively stimulated owing to mismatched mode field distribution and the mainly sensing principle is based on modal interferometer spectrum analysis. Different curvatures induce different strains on the FMF such that affecting the modal excitation, resulting spectrum shifts. One can get the curvature value by tracking the wavelength shifting. Experiments have been done to address the sensing performance, which is about 7.8 nm/m⁻¹ within a range of 1.90 m⁻¹~3.18 m⁻¹.

Keywords: curvature, four mode fiber, highly sensitive, modal interferometer

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3 Study of Biomechanical Model for Smart Sensor Based Prosthetic Socket Design System

Authors: Wei Xu, Abdo S. Haidar, Jianxin Gao


Prosthetic socket is a component that connects the residual limb of an amputee with an artificial prosthesis. It is widely recognized as the most critical component that determines the comfort of a patient when wearing the prosthesis in his/her daily activities. Through the socket, the body weight and its associated dynamic load are distributed and transmitted to the prosthesis during walking, running or climbing. In order to achieve a good-fit socket for an individual amputee, it is essential to obtain the biomechanical properties of the residual limb. In current clinical practices, this is achieved by a touch-and-feel approach which is highly subjective. Although there have been significant advancements in prosthetic technologies such as microprocessor controlled knee and ankle joints in the last decade, the progress in designing a comfortable socket has been rather limited. This means that the current process of socket design is still very time-consuming, and highly dependent on the expertise of the prosthetist. Supported by the state-of-the-art sensor technologies and numerical simulations, a new socket design system is being developed to help prosthetists achieve rapid design of comfortable sockets for above knee amputees. This paper reports the research work related to establishing biomechanical models for socket design. Through numerical simulation using finite element method, comprehensive relationships between pressure on residual limb and socket geometry were established. This allowed local topological adjustment for the socket so as to optimize the pressure distributions across the residual limb. When the full body weight of a patient is exerted on the residual limb, high pressures and shear forces between the residual limb and the socket occur. During numerical simulations, various hyperplastic models, namely Ogden, Yeoh and Mooney-Rivlin, were used, and their effectiveness in representing the biomechanical properties of soft tissues of the residual limb was evaluated. This also involved reverse engineering, which resulted in an optimal representative model under compression test. To validate the simulation results, a range of silicone models were fabricated. They were tested by an indentation device which yielded the force-displacement relationships. Comparisons of results obtained from FEA simulations and experimental tests showed that the Ogden model did not fit well the soft tissue material indentation data, while the Yeoh model gave the best representation of the soft tissue mechanical behavior under indentation. Compared with hyperplastic model, the result showed that elastic model also had significant errors. In addition, normal and shear stress distributions on the surface of the soft tissue model were obtained. The effect of friction in compression testing and the influence of soft tissue stiffness and testing boundary conditions were also analyzed. All these have contributed to the overall goal of designing a good-fit socket for individual above knee amputees.

Keywords: finite element simulation, above knee amputee, hyperplastic model, prosthetic socket

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2 Evaluation of Low Temperature as Treatment Tool for Eradication of Mediterranean Fruit Fly (Ceratitis capitata) in Artificial Diet

Authors: Wei Xu, Farhan J. M. Al-Behadili, Vineeta Bilgi, Miyuki Taniguchi, Junxi Li


Mediterranean fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata) is one of the most destructive pests of fruits and vegetables. Medfly originated from Africa and spread in many countries, and is currently an endemic pest in Western Australia. Medfly has been recorded from over 300 plant species including fruits, vegetables, nuts and its main hosts include blueberries, citrus, stone fruit, pome fruits, peppers, tomatoes, and figs. Global trade of fruits and other farm fresh products are suffering from the damages of this pest, which prompted towards the need to develop more effective ways to control these pests. The available quarantine treatment technologies mainly include chemical treatment (e.g., fumigation) and non-chemical treatments (e.g., cold, heat and irradiation). In recent years, with the loss of several chemicals, it has become even more important to rely on non-chemical postharvest control technologies (i.e., heat, cold and irradiation) to control fruit flies. Cold treatment is one of the most potential trends of focus in postharvest treatment because it is free of chemical residues, mitigates or kills the pest population, increases the strength of the fruits, and prolongs storage time. It can also be applied to fruits after packing and ‘in transit’ during lengthy transport by sea during their exports. However, limited systematic study on cold treatment of Medfly stages in artificial diets was reported, which is critical to provide a scientific basis to compare with previous research in plant products and design an effective cold treatment suitable for exported plant products. The overall purpose of this study was to evaluate and understand Medfly responses to cold treatments. Medfly stages were tested. The long-term goal was to optimize current postharvest treatments and develop more environmentally-friendly, cost-effective, and efficient treatments for controlling Medfly. Cold treatment with different exposure times is studied to evaluate cold eradication treatment of Mediterranean fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata), that reared on carrot diet. Mortality is important aspect was studied in this study. On the other hand, study effects of exposure time on mortality means of medfly stages.

Keywords: fruit fly, cold treatment, Ceratitis capitata, carrot diet, temperature effects

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1 A Comparative Assessment of Industrial Composites Using Thermography and Ultrasound

Authors: Mosab Alrashed, Wei Xu, Stephen Abineri, Yifan Zhao, Jörn Mehnen


Thermographic inspection is a relatively new technique for Non-Destructive Testing (NDT) which has been gathering increasing interest due to its relatively low cost hardware and extremely fast data acquisition properties. This technique is especially promising in the area of rapid automated damage detection and quantification. In collaboration with a major industry partner from the aerospace sector advanced thermography-based NDT software for impact damaged composites is introduced. The software is based on correlation analysis of time-temperature profiles in combination with an image enhancement process. The prototype software is aiming to a) better visualise the damages in a relatively easy-to-use way and b) automatically and quantitatively measure the properties of the degradation. Knowing that degradation properties play an important role in the identification of degradation types, tests and results on specimens which were artificially damaged have been performed and analyzed.

Keywords: Image Processing, Inspection, Correlation analysis, ndt, Damage

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