Reza Kormi-Nouri

Abstracts

5 Effect of Semantic Relational Cues in Action Memory Performance over School Ages

Authors: Reza Kormi-Nouri, Farzaneh Badinlou, Monika Knopf, Kamal Kharazi

Abstract:

Research into long-term memory has demonstrated that the richness of the knowledge base cues in memory tasks improves retrieval process, which in turn influences learning and memory performance. The present research investigated the idea that adding cues connected to knowledge can affect memory performance in the context of action memory in children. In action memory studies, participants are instructed to learn a series of verb–object phrases as verbal learning and experience-based learning (learning by doing and learning by observation). It is well established that executing action phrases is a more memorable way to learn than verbally repeating the phrases, a finding called enactment effect. In the present study, a total of 410 students from four grade groups—2nd, 4th, 6th, and 8th—participated in this study. During the study, participants listened to verbal action phrases (VTs), performed the phrases (SPTs: subject-performed tasks), and observed the experimenter perform the phrases (EPTs: experimenter-performed tasks). During the test phase, cued recall test was administered. Semantic relational cues (i.e., well-integrated vs. poorly integrated items) were manipulated in the present study. In that, the participants were presented two lists of action phrases with high semantic integration between verb and noun, e.g., “write with the pen” and with low semantic integration between verb and noun, e.g., “pick up the glass”. Results revealed that experience-based learning had a better results than verbal learning for both well-integrated and poorly integrated items, though manipulations of semantic relational cues can moderate the enactment effect. In addition, children of different grade groups outperformed for well- than poorly integrated items, in flavour of older children. The results were discussed in relation to the effect of knowledge-based information in facilitating retrieval process in children.

Keywords: school-aged children, action memory, enactment effect, knowledge-based cues, semantic relational cues

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4 Effective Learning and Testing Methods in School-Aged Children

Authors: Reza Kormi-Nouri, Farzaneh Badinlou, Monika Knopf, Kamal Kharrazi

Abstract:

When we teach, we have two critical elements at our disposal to help students: learning styles as well as testing styles. There are many different ways in which educators can effectively teach their students; verbal learning and experience-based learning. Lecture as a form of verbal learning style is a traditional arrangement in which teachers are more active and share information verbally with students. In experienced-based learning as the process of through, students learn actively through hands-on learning materials and observing teachers or others. Meanwhile, standard testing or assessment is the way to determine progress toward proficiency. Teachers and instructors mainly use essay (requires written responses), multiple choice questions (includes the correct answer and several incorrect answers as distractors), or open-ended questions (respondents answers it with own words). The current study focused on exploring an effective teaching style and testing methods as the function of age over school ages. In the present study, totally 410 participants were selected randomly from four grades (2ⁿᵈ, 4ᵗʰ, 6ᵗʰ, and 8ᵗʰ). Each subject was tested individually in one session lasting around 50 minutes. In learning tasks, the participants were presented three different instructions for learning materials (learning by doing, learning by observing, and learning by listening). Then, they were tested via different standard assessments as free recall, cued recall, and recognition tasks. The results revealed that generally students remember more of what they do and what they observe than what they hear. The age effect was more pronounced in learning by doing than in learning by observing, and learning by listening, becoming progressively stronger in the free-recall, cued-recall, and recognition tasks. The findings of this study indicated that learning by doing and free recall task is more age sensitive, suggesting that both of them are more strategic and more affected by developmental differences. Pedagogically, these results denoted that learning by modeling and engagement in program activities have the special role for learning. Moreover, the findings indicated that the multiple-choice questions can produce the best performance for school-aged children but is less age-sensitive. By contrast, the essay as essay can produce the lowest performance but is more age-sensitive. It will be very helpful for educators to know that what types of learning styles and test methods are most effective for students in each school grade.

Keywords: Testing Methods, learning style, school-aged children, experience-based learning, verbal learning

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3 The Effect of Object Presentation on Action Memory in School-Aged Children

Authors: Reza Kormi-Nouri, Farzaneh Badinlou, Monika Knopf

Abstract:

Enacted tasks are typically remembered better than when the same task materials are only verbally encoded, a robust finding referred to as the enactment effect. It has been assumed that enactment effect is independent of object presence but the size of enactment effect can be increased by providing objects at study phase in adults. To clarify the issues in children, free recall and cued recall performance of action phrases with or without using real objects were compared in 410 school-aged children from four age groups (8, 10, 12 and 14 years old). In this study, subjects were instructed to learn a series of action phrases under three encoding conditions, participants listened to verbal action phrases (VTs), performed the phrases (SPTs: subject-performed tasks), and observed the experimenter perform the phrases (EPTs: experimenter-performed tasks). Then, free recall and cued recall memory tests were administrated. The results revealed that the real object compared with imaginary objects improved recall performance in SPTs and EPTs, but more so in VTs. It was also found that the object presence was not necessary for the occurrence of the enactment effect but it was changed the size of enactment effect in all age groups. The size of enactment effect was more pronounced for imaginary objects than the real object in both free recall and cued recall memory tests in children. It was discussed that SPTs and EPTs deferentially facilitate item-specific and relation information processing and providing the objects can moderate the processing underlying the encoding conditions.

Keywords: school-aged children, object, action memory, enactment effect, item-specific processing, relational processing

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2 Temporal Progression of Episodic Memory as Function of Encoding Condition and Age: Further Investigation of Action Memory in School-Aged Children

Authors: Reza Kormi-Nouri, Farzaneh Badinlou, Monika Knopf

Abstract:

Studies of adults' episodic memory have found that enacted encoding not only improve recall performance but also retrieve faster during the recall period. The current study focused on exploring the temporal progression of different encoding conditions in younger and older school children. 204 students from two age group of 8 and 14 participated in this study. During the study phase, we studied action encoding in two forms; participants performed the phrases by themselves (SPT), and observed the performance of the experimenter (EPT), which were compared with verbal encoding; participants listened to verbal action phrases (VT). At test phase, we used immediate and delayed free recall tests. We observed significant differences in memory performance as function of age group, and encoding conditions in both immediate and delayed free recall tests. Moreover, temporal progression of recall was faster in older children when compared with younger ones. The interaction of age-group and encoding condition was only significant in delayed recall displaying that younger children performed better in EPT whereas older children outperformed in SPT. It was proposed that enactment effect in form of SPT enhances item-specific processing, whereas EPT improves relational information processing and this differential processes are responsible for the results achieved in younger and older children. The role of memory strategies and information processing methods in younger and older children were considered in this study. Moreover, the temporal progression of recall was faster in action encoding in the form of SPT and EPT compared with verbal encoding in both immediate and delayed free recall and size of enactment effect was constantly increased throughout the recall period. The results of the present study provide further evidence that the action memory is explained with an emphasis on the notion of information processing and strategic views. These results also reveal the temporal progression of recall as a new dimension of episodic memory in children.

Keywords: Episodic Memory, school-aged children, action memory, enactment effect, temporal progression

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1 Short-Term and Working Memory Differences Across Age and Gender in Children

Authors: Farzaneh Badinloo, Niloufar Jalali-Moghadam, Reza Kormi-Nouri

Abstract:

The aim of this study was to explore the short-term and working memory performances across age and gender in school aged children. Most of the studies have been interested in looking into memory changes in adult subjects. This study was instead focused on exploring both short-term and working memories of children over time. Totally 410 school child participants belonging to four age groups (approximately 8, 10, 12 and 14 years old) among which were 201 girls and 208 boys were employed in the study. digits forward and backward tests of the Wechsler children intelligence scale-revised were conducted respectively as short-term and working memory measures. According to results, there was found a general increment in both short-term and working memory scores across age (p ˂ .05) by which whereas short-term memory performance was shown to increase up to 12 years old, working memory scores showed no significant increase after 10 years old of age. No difference was observed in terms of gender (p ˃ .05). In conclusion, this study suggested that both short-term and working memories improve across age in children where 12 and 10 years of old are likely the crucial age periods in terms of short-term and working memories development.

Keywords: Gender, Working memory, age, short-term memory

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