Feng Wang


1 Further the Effectiveness of Software Testability Measure

Authors: Liang Zhao, Bo Yang, Bo Deng, Feng Wang


Software testability is proposed to address the problem of increasing cost of test and the quality of software. Testability measure provides a quantified way to denote the testability of software. Since 1990s, many testability measure models are proposed to address the problem. By discussing the contradiction between domain testability and domain range ratio (DRR), a new testability measure, semantic fault distance, is proposed. Its validity is discussed.

Keywords: Software testability, DRR, Domain testability

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3 A Density Function Theory Based Comparative Study of Trans and Cis - Resveratrol

Authors: Feng Wang, Subhojyoti Chatterjee, Peter J. Mahon


Resveratrol (RvL), a phenolic compound, is a key ingredient in wine and tomatoes that has been studied over the years because of its important bioactivities such as anti-oxidant, anti-aging and antimicrobial properties. Out of the two isomeric forms of resveratrol i.e. trans and cis, the health benefit is primarily associated with the trans form. Thus, studying the structural properties of the isomers will not only provide an insight into understanding the RvL isomers, but will also help in designing parameters for differentiation in order to achieve 99.9% purity of trans-RvL. In the present study, density function theory (DFT) study is conducted, using the B3LYP/6-311++G** model to explore the through bond and through space intramolecular interactions. Properties such as vibrational spectroscopy (IR and Raman), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra, excess orbital energy spectrum (EOES), energy based decomposition analyses (EDA) and Fukui function are calculated. It is discovered that the structure of trans-RvL, although it is C1 non-planar, the backbone non-H atoms are nearly in the same plane; whereas the cis-RvL consists of two major planes of R1 and R2 that are not in the same plane. The absence of planarity gives rise to a H-bond of 2.67Å in cis-RvL. Rotation of the C(5)-C(8) single bond in trans-RvL produces higher energy barriers since it may break the (planar) entire conjugated structure; while such rotation in cis-RvL produces multiple minima and maxima depending on the positions of the rings. The calculated FT-IR spectrum shows very different spectral features for trans and cis-RvL in the region 900 – 1500 cm-1, where the spectral peaks at 1138-1158 cm-1 are split in cis-RvL compared to a single peak at 1165 cm-1 in trans-RvL. In the Raman spectra, there is significant enhancement of cis-RvL in the region above 3000cm-1. Further, the carbon chemical environment (13C NMR) of the RvL molecule exhibit a larger chemical shift for cis-RvL compared to trans-RvL (Δδ = 8.18 ppm) for the carbon atom C(11), indicating that the chemical environment of the C group in cis-RvL is more diverse than its other isomer. The energy gap between highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) and the lowest occupied molecular orbital (LUMO) is 3.95 eV for trans and 4.35 eV for cis-RvL. A more detailed inspection using the recently developed EOES revealed that most of the large energy differences i.e. Δεcis-trans > ±0.30 eV, in their orbitals are contributed from the outer valence shell. They are MO60 (HOMO), MO52-55 and MO46. The active sites that has been captured by Fukui function (f + > 0.08) are associated with the stilbene C=C bond of RvL and cis-RvL is more active at these sites than in trans-RvL, as cis orientation breaks the large conjugation of trans-RvL so that the hydroxyl oxygen’s are more active in cis-RvL. Finally, EDA highlights the interaction energy (ΔEInt) of the phenolic compound, where trans is preferred over the cis-RvL (ΔΔEi = -4.35 kcal.mol-1) isomer. Thus, these quantum mechanics results could help in unwinding the diversified beneficial activities associated with resveratrol.

Keywords: NMR, Resveratrol, FT-IR, Raman, Fukui function, excess orbital energy spectrum, energy decomposition analysis

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2 Molecular Dynamics Study of Ferrocene in Low and Room Temperatures

Authors: Feng Wang, Vladislav Vasilyev


Ferrocene (Fe(C5H5)2, i.e., di-cyclopentadienyle iron (FeCp2) or Fc) is a unique example of ‘wrong but seminal’ in chemistry history. It has significant applications in a number of areas such as homogeneous catalysis, polymer chemistry, molecular sensing, and nonlinear optical materials. However, the ‘molecular carousel’ has been a ‘notoriously difficult example’ and subject to long debate for its conformation and properties. Ferrocene is a dynamic molecule. As a result, understanding of the dynamical properties of ferrocene is very important to understand the conformational properties of Fc. In the present study, molecular dynamic (MD) simulations are performed. In the simulation, we use 5 geometrical parameters to define the overall conformation of Fc and all the rest is a thermal noise. The five parameters are defined as: three parameters d---the distance between two Cp planes, α and δ to define the relative positions of the Cp planes, in which α is the angle of the Cp tilt and δ the angle the two Cp plane rotation like a carousel. Two parameters to position the Fe atom between two Cps, i.e., d1 for Fe-Cp1 and d2 for Fe-Cp2 distances. Our preliminary MD simulation discovered the five parameters behave differently. Distances of Fe to the Cp planes show that they are independent, practically identical without correlation. The relative position of two Cp rings, α, indicates that the two Cp planes are most likely not in a parallel position, rather, they tilt in a small angle α≠ 0°. The mean plane dihedral angle δ ≠ 0°. Moreover, δ is neither 0° nor 36°, indicating under those conditions, Fc is neither in a perfect eclipsed structure nor a perfect staggered structure. The simulations show that when the temperature is above 80K, the conformers are virtually in free rotations, A very interesting result from the MD simulation is the five C-Fe bond distances from the same Cp ring. They are surprisingly not identical but in three groups of 2, 2 and 1. We describe the pentagon formed by five carbon atoms as ‘turtle swimming’ for the motion of the Cp rings of Fc as shown in their dynamical animation video. The Fe- C(1) and Fe-C(2) which are identical as ‘the turtle back legs’, Fe-C(3) and Fe-C(4) which are also identical as turtle front paws’, and Fe-C(5) ---’the turtle head’. Such as ‘turtle swimming’ analog may be able to explain the single substituted derivatives of Fc. Again, the mean Fe-C distance obtained from MD simulation is larger than the quantum mechanically calculated Fe-C distances for eclipsed and staggered Fc, with larger deviation with respect to the eclipsed Fc than the staggered Fc. The same trend is obtained for the five Fe-C-H angles from same Cp ring of Fc. The simulated mean IR spectrum at 7K shows split spectral peaks at approximately 470 cm-1 and 488 cm-1, in excellent agreement with quantum mechanically calculated gas phase IR spectrum for eclipsed Fc. As the temperature increases over 80K, the clearly splitting IR spectrum become a very board single peak. Preliminary MD results will be presented.

Keywords: molecular dynamics simulation, ferrocene conformation, conformer orientation, eclipsed and staggered ferrocene

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1 Quantification of the Non-Registered Electrical and Electronic Equipment for Domestic Consumption and Enhancing E-Waste Estimation: A Case Study on TVs in Vietnam

Authors: Feng Wang, Ha Phuong Tran, Jo Dewulf, Hai Trung Huynh, Thomas Schaubroeck


The fast increase and complex components have made waste of electrical and electronic equipment (or e-waste) one of the most problematic waste streams worldwide. Precise information on its size on national, regional and global level has therefore been highlighted as prerequisite to obtain a proper management system. However, this is a very challenging task, especially in developing countries where both formal e-waste management system and necessary statistical data for e-waste estimation, i.e. data on the production, sale and trade of electrical and electronic equipment (EEE), are often lacking. Moreover, there is an inflow of non-registered electronic and electric equipment, which ‘invisibly’ enters the EEE domestic market and then is used for domestic consumption. The non-registration/invisibility and (in most of the case) illicit nature of this flow make it difficult or even impossible to be captured in any statistical system. The e-waste generated from it is thus often uncounted in current e-waste estimation based on statistical market data. Therefore, this study focuses on enhancing e-waste estimation in developing countries and proposing a calculation pathway to quantify the magnitude of the non-registered EEE inflow. An advanced Input-Out Analysis model (i.e. the Sale–Stock–Lifespan model) has been integrated in the calculation procedure. In general, Sale-Stock-Lifespan model assists to improve the quality of input data for modeling (i.e. perform data consolidation to create more accurate lifespan profile, model dynamic lifespan to take into account its changes over time), via which the quality of e-waste estimation can be improved. To demonstrate the above objectives, a case study on televisions (TVs) in Vietnam has been employed. The results show that the amount of waste TVs in Vietnam has increased four times since 2000 till now. This upward trend is expected to continue in the future. In 2035, a total of 9.51 million TVs are predicted to be discarded. Moreover, estimation of non-registered TV inflow shows that it might on average contribute about 15% to the total TVs sold on the Vietnamese market during the whole period of 2002 to 2013. To tackle potential uncertainties associated with estimation models and input data, sensitivity analysis has been applied. The results show that both estimations of waste and non-registered inflow depend on two parameters i.e. number of TVs used in household and the lifespan. Particularly, with a 1% increase in the TV in-use rate, the average market share of non-register inflow in the period 2002-2013 increases 0.95%. However, it decreases from 27% to 15% when the constant unadjusted lifespan is replaced by the dynamic adjusted lifespan. The effect of these two parameters on the amount of waste TV generation for each year is more complex and non-linear over time. To conclude, despite of remaining uncertainty, this study is the first attempt to apply the Sale-Stock-Lifespan model to improve the e-waste estimation in developing countries and to quantify the non-registered EEE inflow to domestic consumption. It therefore can be further improved in future with more knowledge and data.

Keywords: E-Waste, Vietnam, non-registered electrical and electronic equipment, TVs

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