M. Loulou

Publications

5 Design of Folded Cascode OTA in Different Regions of Operation through gm/ID Methodology

Authors: M. Loulou, S. Zouari, H. Daoud Dammak, S. Bensalem

Abstract:

This paper presents an optimized methodology to folded cascode operational transconductance amplifier (OTA) design. The design is done in different regions of operation, weak inversion, strong inversion and moderate inversion using the gm/ID methodology in order to optimize MOS transistor sizing. Using 0.35μm CMOS process, the designed folded cascode OTA achieves a DC gain of 77.5dB and a unity-gain frequency of 430MHz in strong inversion mode. In moderate inversion mode, it has a 92dB DC gain and provides a gain bandwidth product of around 69MHz. The OTA circuit has a DC gain of 75.5dB and unity-gain frequency limited to 19.14MHZ in weak inversion region.

Keywords: Optimization, CMOS IC design, Folded Cascode OTA, gm/ID methodology

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4 A 24-Bit, 8.1-MS/s D/A Converter for Audio Baseband Channel Applications

Authors: M. Loulou, N. Ben Ameur

Abstract:

This paper study the high-level modelling and design of delta-sigma (ΔΣ) noise shapers for audio Digital-to-Analog Converter (DAC) so as to eliminate the in-band Signal-to-Noise- Ratio (SNR) degradation that accompany one channel mismatch in audio signal. The converter combines a cascaded digital signal interpolation, a noise-shaping single loop delta-sigma modulator with a 5-bit quantizer resolution in the final stage. To reduce sensitivity of Digital-to-Analog Converter (DAC) nonlinearities of the last stage, a high pass second order Data Weighted Averaging (R2DWA) is introduced. This paper presents a MATLAB description modelling approach of the proposed DAC architecture with low distortion and swing suppression integrator designs. The ΔΣ Modulator design can be configured as a 3rd-order and allows 24-bit PCM at sampling rate of 64 kHz for Digital Video Disc (DVD) audio application. The modeling approach provides 139.38 dB of dynamic range for a 32 kHz signal band at -1.6 dBFS input signal level.

Keywords: DVD-audio, DAC, Interpolator and Interpolation Filter, Single-Loop ΔΣ Modulation, R2DWA, Clock Jitter

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3 High Level Characterization and Optimization of Switched-Current Sigma-Delta Modulators with VHDL-AMS

Authors: M. Loulou, N. Masmoudi, A. Fakhfakh, N. Ksentini, J. J. Charlot

Abstract:

Today, design requirements are extending more and more from electronic (analogue and digital) to multidiscipline design. These current needs imply implementation of methodologies to make the CAD product reliable in order to improve time to market, study costs, reusability and reliability of the design process. This paper proposes a high level design approach applied for the characterization and the optimization of Switched-Current Sigma- Delta Modulators. It uses the new hardware description language VHDL-AMS to help the designers to optimize the characteristics of the modulator at a high level with a considerably reduced CPU time before passing to a transistor level characterization.

Keywords: Optimization, high level design, switched-Current Sigma-Delta Modulators, VHDL-AMS

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2 High Order Cascade Multibit ΣΔ Modulator for Wide Bandwidth Applications

Authors: M. Loulou, S. Zouari, H. Daoud, P. Loumeau, N. Masmoudi

Abstract:

A wideband 2-1-1 cascaded ΣΔ modulator with a single-bit quantizer in the two first stages and a 4-bit quantizer in the final stage is developed. To reduce sensitivity of digital-to-analog converter (DAC) nonlinearities in the feedback of the last stage, dynamic element matching (DEM) is introduced. This paper presents two modelling approaches: The first is MATLAB description and the second is VHDL-AMS modelling of the proposed architecture and exposes some high-level-simulation results allowing a behavioural study. The detail of both ideal and non-ideal behaviour modelling are presented. Then, the study of the effect of building blocks nonidealities is presented; especially the influences of nonlinearity, finite operational amplifier gain, amplifier slew rate limitation and capacitor mismatch. A VHDL-AMS description presents a good solution to predict system-s performances and can provide sensitivity curves giving the impact of nonidealities on the system performance.

Keywords: DEM, behavioural study, DAC nonlinearity, ΣΔ modulator, VHDL-AMS modelling

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1 Design Optimization Methodology of CMOS Active Mixers for Multi-Standard Receivers

Authors: S. Douss, F. Touati, M. Loulou

Abstract:

A design flow of multi-standard down-conversion CMOS mixers for three modern standards: Global System Mobile, Digital Enhanced Cordless Telephone and Universal Mobile Telecommunication Systems is presented. Three active mixer-s structures are studied. The first is based on the Gilbert cell which gives a tolerable noise figure and linearity with a low conversion gain. The second and third structures use the current bleeding and charge injection techniques in order to increase the conversion gain. An improvement of about 2 dB of the conversion gain is achieved without a considerable degradation of the other characteristics. The models used for noise figure, conversion gain and IIP3 used are studied. This study describes the nature of trade-offs inherent in such structures and gives insights that help in identifying which structure is better for given conditions.

Keywords: Active mixer, Radio-frequency transceiver, Multistandardfront end, Gilbert cell, current bleeding, charge injection

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